Chapter 7 The Respiratory System Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 The Respiratory System Medical Terms Deck (112):
1

a life-threatening condition in which inflammation in the lungs and fluid in the alveoli lead to low levels of oxygen in the blood

acute respiratory distress syndrome

2

the swelling and clogging of the bronchial tubes with mucus

airway inflammation

3

occurs when food or a foreign object partially or completely blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs

airway obstruction (choking)

4

an allergic reaction to airborne allergens

allergic rhinitis (allergy)

5

an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen

allergy

6

the absence of oxygen from the body's tissues or organs despite adequate flow of blood

anoxia

7

the form of pneumoconiosis caused by coal dust in the lungs

anthracosis (coal miner's pneumoconiosis or black lung disease)

8

medication administered to prevent or relieve coughing

antitussive (cough medicine)

9

the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds

aphonia

10

the form of pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos particles in the lungs

asbestosis

11

the loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function

asphyxia

12

pneumonia caused by a foreign substance, such as vomit, being inhaled into the lungs

aspiration pneumonia

13

a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes

asthma

14

incomplete expansion of part of all of the lung

atelectasis (collapsed lung)

15

pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae

bacterial pneumonia

16

noninvasive ventilation device like a CPAP machine; however, it can be set at a higher pressure for inhaling and a lower pressure for exhaling

BiPAP machine

17

an abnormally slow rate of respiration, usually of less than 10 breaths per minute

bradypnea

18

permanent dilation of the bronchi caused by chronic infection and inflammation

bronchiectasis

19

a medication that relaxes and expands the bronchial passages into the lungs 

bronchodilator 

20

a localized form of pneumonia often affects the bronchioles 

bronchopneumonia 

21

an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

bronchorrhea

22

the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

bronchoscopy

23

a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut

bronchospasm

24

a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung cancer, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and emphysema

chest x-ray (chest imaging)

25

an irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slow respiration or apnea

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

26

a disease in which the airways have become inflammed due to recurrent exposure to an inhaled irritant

chronic brochitis

27

a group of lung diseases in which the bronchial airflow is obstructed, making it hard to breath

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

28

a type of pneumonia that results from contagious infection outside of a hospital or clinic

community-acquired pneumonia

29

a noninvasive ventilation device used in the treatment of sleep apnea

CPAP machine (continuous positive airway pressure)

30

an acute respiratory infection in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and swelling around the vocal cords resulting in a barking cough and stridor

croup

31

bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood

cyanosis

32

a life threatening genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus

cystic fibrosis

33

a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety

diaphragmatic breathing (abdominal breathing)

34

an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract

diphtheria

35

difficulty in speaking, which may include any impairment in vocal quality

dysphonia

36

difficult or labored breathing

dyspnea (shortness of breath (SOB) )

37

the progressive, long-term loss of lung function, usually due to smoking

emphysema

38

an accumulation of pus in a body cavity

empyema

39

the passage of a tube through the mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway

endotracheal intubation

40

bleeding from the nose

epistaxis (nose-bleed)

41

easy or normal breathing

eupnea

42

the act of coughing up and spitting out saliva, mucus, or other body fluid

expectoration

43

a surgical procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus

function endoscopic sinus surgery

44

a surgical procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus 

functional endoscopic sinus surgery 

45

expectoration of blood or bloodstained sputum

hemoptysis

46

a collection of blood in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

47

a type of pneumonia contracted during a stay in the hospital when a patient's defenses are impaired

hospital-acquired pneumonia (nosocomial pneumonia)

48

use or inhaled oxygen in a special chamber with increased air pressure to promote healing and fight infection

hyperbaric oxygen therapy

49

the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercapnia

50

breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest

hyperpnea

51

an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety

hyperventilation

52

shallow or slow respiration

hypopnea

53

the condition of having deficient oxygen levels in the body tissues and organs; less severe than anoxia

hypoxia

54

a highly contagious viral respiratory infection that occurs in seasonal epidemics

influenza

55

a group of diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures

interstitial lung diseases

56

the surgical removal of the larynx

laryngectomy

57

inflammation of the larynx

laryngitis

58

the visual examination of the larynx and vocal cords using a laryngoscope

laryngoscopy

59

the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx

laryngospasm

60

a surgical incision into the larynx

laryngotomy

61

a type of pneumonia that affects larger areas of the lungs, often one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung

lobar pneumonia

62

the surgical removal of a lobe of an organ

lobectomy

63

a condition in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the lung

lung cancer

64

a test for diagnosing tuberculosis

Mantoux PPD skin test

65

a medical device that administers a specific amount of a medication such as a bronchodilator in aerosol form

metered dose inhaler

66

an electronic device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a mist that is inhaled via a face mask or mouthpiece

nebulizer

67

a handheld device used to measure quickly a person with asthma can expel air

peak flow meter

68

a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of paroxysmal cough

pertussis (whooping cough)

69

inflammation of the pharynx

pharyngitis (sore throat)

70

thick mucus secreted by tissues lining the respiratory tract

phlegm

71

the excess accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that prevents the lung from fully expanding

pleural effusion

72

inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath

pleurisy (pleuritis)

73

pain in the pleura or in the side

pleurodynia

74

any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental or occupational contact

pneumoconiosis

75

the form of pneumonia caused by an opportunistic infection with the fungus Pneumocystis carinii

pneumocystis pneumonia

76

the surgical removal of all or part of the lung

pneumonectomy

77

a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other liquid

pneumonia

78

bleeding from the lungs

pneumorrhagia

79

the accumulation of air in the pleural space resulting in a pressure imbalance that causes the lungs to fully or partially collapse

pneumothorax

80

the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep

polysomnography (sleep study)

81

an accumulation of fluid in the lung tissues

pulmonary edema

82

the sudden blockage of a pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by an embolus that has formed in the leg or pelvic region

pulmonary embolism

83

the progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing

pulmonary fibrosis (interstitial fibrosis)

84

a group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer

pulmonary function tests

85

an external monitor that measures the oxygen saturation level in the blood

pulse oximeter

86

the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of pleural membrane

pyothorax (empyema of the pleural cavity)

87

a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerous low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high

respiratory failure (RF) (respiratory acidosis)

88

the watery flow of mucus from the nose

rhinorrhea (runny nose)

89

the surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum

septoplasty

90

the form of pnemoconiosis caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs

silicosis

91

an inflammation of the sinuses

sinusitis

92

a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels

sleep apnea

93

damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent normal exchange of gases

smoke inhalation

94

a recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled (volume) and the length of time required for each breath

spirometer

95

phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes

sputum

96

an abnormal, high-pitched, musical breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or larynx

stridor

97

the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of two and six months

sudden infant death syndrome

98

administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood from breathing normal air

supplemental oxygen

99

an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually of more than 20 breaths per minute

tachypnea

100

the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity

thoracacentesis

101

surgical incision into the chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment

thoracotomy

102

bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea

tracheorrhagia

103

the surgical creation of a stoma into the trachea in order to insert a tube to facilitate breathing

tracheostomy

104

an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage

tracheotomy

105

a screening test for tuberculosis in which the skin of the arm is injected with harmless antigen extracted from the TB bacteria

tuberculin skin testing

106

an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually attacks the lungs

tuberculosis

107

a mechanical device for artificial respiration that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function

ventilator (respirator)

108

a term used to describe the common cold; coryza 

upper respiratory infections (acute nasopharyngitis or the common cold)

109

the use of a thoracoscope to view the inside of the pleural cavity through very small incisions

video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)

110

caused by several different types of viruses, accounts for approximately a third of all pneumonias

viral pneumonia

111

a milder but longer-lasting form of pneumonia caused by the bacteria mycoplasma pneumoniae

walking pneumonia (mycoplasma pneumonia)

112

a surgery in which a small wedge-shaped piece of cancerous lung tissue is removed, along with a margin of healthy tissue around the cancer

wedge resection

Decks in ► Med Terminology Class (65):