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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Tissues Deck (103):
0

Groups of cells that work together

Tissues

1

Study of tissues

Histology

2

4 types of tissues:

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Neural

3

What covers the surface inside and out

Epithelial

4

Secrete waste products and hormones

Glandular

5

Characteristics of epithelial tissue

Cellularity (tightly packed cells)
Attachment
Avascular
Regenerative

6

Functions of epithelial tissue:

Protects from impact of friction
Controls what enters and leaves
Provides sensation
Creates secreations

7

2 regions of epithelial cell:

Basolateral-bottom, deep-connects to underling tissues

Apical-surface

8

Part that is exposed to surface

Apical

9

Structures of epithelia:

Microvilli-increased surface area for absorption

Stereocilia-

Ciliated epithilium-

10

What are the shapes of the epithelia?

Squamous-flat
Cuboidal-square
Columnar-rectangular

11

What are the layers in the epithelia?

Simple-secretes and absorbs
Stratified-many layers

12

Simple squamous-

Stratified squamous-

Secretes and absorbs (ex:lung)

Multiple layers of flat cells (Ex:skin)

13

-Single layer of square cells (glands,ducts); limited protections, sensation, absorption

-Protection, many layers (ex:lining of ducts)

-change in thickness due to stretching (ex:urinary bladder)

Simple cuboidal-

Stratified cuboidal-

Transitional cuboidal

14

-single layer of rectangular cells secretes and absorbs (ex:lining of small intestines)

-single layer but looks layered, many different cells mixed together (ex:trachea)

-protections, multiple layers of abrasion (ex:salivary gland, ducts)

Simple columnar

Pseudostatified

Stratified columnar

15

-Secretes Hormones to the inside of the body, no glandular ducts.

-regulate and coordinate body activities.

-example:pancreas, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, adrinal glands

Endocrine
Hormones

16

Release material to the outside of the body; have ducts.

-ex:sweat gland, oil glands, tear ducts

Exocrine

17

Modes of secretions:
-no cell damage, release sac/vesicles of material
-release materials with some cytoplasm; cell survives
-cell explodes/destroyed when released (ex:hair and skin)

Merocrine
Apocrine
Holocrine

18

Types of secretion:
-usually enzymes;water secretion
-thick lubricator
-watery with lubricator as a combination

Serous
Mucous
Mixed

19

What are the 3 parts all connective tissues have?

1)specialized cell
2)fiber
3)ground substance

20

Functions of connective tissue:

Framework-bones
Transports-blood
Protects-cartilage, bone, fat
Supports other tissues
Stores energy
Defines against infection

21

Has a thick ground substance; many different types of cells and fibers
Example:fats, tendons, ligaments

Connective tissue proper

22

Connective tissue proper can be:
A) fibers create loose, open framework (fat)
B) fibers densely packed

Loose
Dense

23

Watery matrix, specific cells;protects and supports;
*_____~contained in circulatory system
*____~contained in the lymphatic system

Fluid connective tissue
Blood
Lymph

24

Support and densely packed fibers
*____~solid, rubbery matrix
*____~solid, crystalline matrix

Supporting connective tissue
Cartilage
Bone

25

Deep, connects to underlining tissues

Basolateral

26

What are the structures of epithelial cell?

Microvilli
Stereocilia
Ciliatated epithilium

27

Small, increased surface area for absorption

Microvilli

28

Large, picks up vibration in ears

Stereocilia

29

Medium, (cilia), moved stuff on surface of cell

Ciliated epithilium

30

Multiple layers of flat cells, example: skin

Stratified squamous

31

3 parts to connective tissue

Cell
Fiber
Grand substance

32

make the ground substances, most abundant

Fibroblasts

33

destroys damaged cells, or pathogens
-shows up early
-signals immune system

Macrophages

34

fat cells cushion and insulate

Adipocytes

35

stem cells, producing new tissue

Mesenchymal

36

causes swelling, release hystomenes and hephran

Mast cells

37

form plasma cells. Defend against disease

Lymphocytes

38

makes antibodies

Plasma cells

39

small eater eats away scar tissue, thick straight, strong. Give strength (collagen)

Microphages

40

Connective tissue fibers:
-gives strength
-net like thin, holds structures together
-thin fibers that branch (split), stretch, bounce back, very flexible

Collagen
Reticular fibers
Elastic fibers

41

Fills the area between the cells and fibers

Ground substance

42

Embryonic connective tissue:
-first tissue to form in fetus and adults after injury; only found in embryo

Mesenchyme

43

Fills area between organs

Loose connective tissues

44

Loose connective tissues:
-separates skin from deeper layers

Areolar tissue

45

Loose connective tissue:
-fat cells
• ______harder to burn
• ______burns faster

Adipose tissue
White fat
Brown fat

46

Loose connective tissue:
-this stabilizes organs of the body. Sheets of tissue cargo net

Reticular tissue

47

Tightly packed

Dense connective tissue

48

Tendons, ligaments, mostly collagen goes strong one way

Dense regular connective tissue

49

Mostly collagen, no regular pattern, resist forces from other directions

Dense irregular connective tissue

50

Sheets of tendon-carries and transports

Aponeurosis

51

Fluid connective tissues:
-transports around the body
-purify tissue by removing toxins as excess water

Blood
lymph

52

Red blood cells; transports

Erythrocytes

53

Fights infection; white blood cells

Leukocytes

54

Thrombocytes, clotter of blood

Platelets

55

Liquid portion of blood

Plasma

56

Give support/bone cartilage

Supporting connective tissue

57

Made up of condrocytes ground substance-conjoin

Cartilage

58

Cartilage cell

Chondrocytes

59

Outer protective covering

Perichondrium

60

A vascular, ground substance

Chondroitin sulfate

61

Cartilage growth:
-new cells inside; old cells outside (knee joint)
-old cells deep-young outside

Interstitial
Appositional

62

Types of cartilage:

Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage

63

Most common, main jobs: reduce friction, gives support

Hyaline cartilage

64

Elastic fibers-very flexible- ear flap

Elastic cartilage

65

Toughest of all cartilage-pure collagen fibers, shocks absorbers
-vertebrae

Fibrocartilage

66

Osteocytes, outer covering periosteum, blood is getting there vascular

Bone

67

Bone cells-solid

Osteocytes

68

Rings in bone tissue

Lamellae

69

Caverns/openings in bone cells are found in

Lucunae

70

Connections between bone cells/Lucunae-allows communication

Canaliculi

71

Protects outside of bone

Periosteum

72

No known cause of cure; immune system; auto antibodies, inflammation; butterfly rash, attacks mostly women, pain in chest, light sensitivity

Systemic lupus

73

Bending fingers, thickening of tendons and ligaments of the fingers and Palm, lumps on skin, treatment:enzyme injection

Dupentrey contractor

74

Localized scleroderma. Purple, red, hardens, temporary

Morphia

75

Hyper mobility of the joints. Extremely flexible. Stretchy skin, loose skin and joints, hyper mobility of joints

EDS

76

White blood cells attack moisture producing glands, tear ducts, most occur in women, vision loss due to lubrication loss

Sjorgen syndrome

77

Tightening of tissue in the lower back vertebrae, affects lower spine, form of arthritis

Anklosing spondylitis

78

Little fibrous fatty cysts, growth of fat cells, tense skin

Lipomas

79

Skin hardens gets tight. Auto immune disease, genetics, hormones. Lethal

Scleroderma

80

Auto immune disease, immune system attack joints and cause swelling and pain. No cure, deformation

Rheumatoid arthritis

81

Muscle disorder, not contagious, commons in adults, swelling of muscle fiber, lost ability to contract pain, occurs in AA more often in adults

Polymyositis

82

Overlapped syndrome, all auto immune disorders but one takes over. Sunlight and UV exposer can cause

Mixed connective tissue disorder

83

Caused by mutations in collagen gene, in young children

Stickler syndrome

84

Loose skin, circulatory and digestive problems, genetic disorder that breaks down the skin

Cutis laxa

85

Inflammation of blood vessels, genetic disorder or auto immune disorder causes swelling

Vasculitis

86

Line cavities of the body; connected to the outside of the body. Example: mouth, nose, ear

Mucous membrane

87

Line cavities of the body; aren't connected to the outside of the body

Serous membrane

88

Parietal

Wall

89

Visceral

Organ

90

Pleura

Lungs

91

Pericardium

Heart

92

Peritoneum

Belly

93

Skin

Cutaneous membrane

94

Fluid filled capsules that are found around joints

Synovial fluid

95

Disorder where 2 membranes fuse together due to friction

Adhesions

96

Surrounds organs and muscle; supportive tissue

Fasciae

97

Hypodermis, separates skin from deeper tissue mainly fat

Superficial fasciae

98

Surrounds muscle tissue, becomes tendons and ligaments

Deep fasciae

99

Found between serous membranes and deep fasciae

Subserous

100

Voluntary, striated, repairs itself, big cells, more than one nuclei

Skeletal (muscle tissue)

101

Non-voluntary, not repairable, small cell, single nuclei

Cardiac muscle tissue

102

Involuntary, not striated, small cells

Smooth muscle tissue