A speech sound that is formed without a *significant constriction of the oral and pharyngeal cavities and that serves as a syllable nucleus.
Vowels are associated with an open tract from the larynx to the lips.
*the cavities are never narrowed, unlike consonants.
A pure vowel.
A vowel having a single, unchangeable sound quality.
IPA symbols: /u/ (who), /ɪ/ (hid), /æ/ (had).
A vowel-like sound that serves as a syllable nucleus and involves a gradual transition from one vowel articulation (onglide) to another (offglide).
IPA symbols: /ɑɪ/ (eye)
The relative vertical position of the tongue body.
In English and most other languages, the tongue has a range of vowel positions in the high-low (or superior-inferior) dimensions.
Vowels that are produced in the highest (superior) position in which the tongue is close to the roof of the mouth.
Vowels like /i/ (he) and /u/ (who) are high vowels.
A vowel produced in a low (inferior) position, with the tongue depressed in the mouth.
Vowels /ɑ/ (hot) and /æ/ (hat) are low vowels.
The vowel feature or dimension pertaining to the position of the tongue body along the anterior-posterior (front-back) aspect.
Advancement implies anterior or frontal position.
A four-sided figure having the corner, or point /i u ɑ æ/ as its vertices.
For a high tongue position, the extremes in tongue advancement are given by the vowels /i/ (high-front) and /u/ (high-back).
For a low tongue position, the extremes in tongue advancement are given by the vowels /æ/ (low-front) and /ɑ/ (low-back).
The quadrilateral diagram is useful for describing the tongue position for vowel articulation, as its two basic dimensions are high-low and front-back.
Are produced with the lips in a pursed and protuded state, so that they form the letter O when viewed from the front.
Vowels like /u/ (who) and /ɝ/ (her) are rounded vowels.
A vowel that is produced without rounding or protrusion of the lips.
Vowels /i/ (he) and /ɑ/ (ha) are unrounded.
A vowel produced with the tongue positioned near the front of the mouth and the lips in an unrounded state.
The front vowel series is bounded by the high-front /i/ (he) and the low-front /æ/ (hat).
Includes the vowels
/ i ɪ e ɛ æ /,
all of which are unrounded.
Vowels that are produced with the tongue positioned in the center of the mouth.
The first vowel in upon is an example.
The central vowels are
/ ɝ ɜ ɚ ə ʌ /.
Tongue height varies little between these vowels except that /ʌ/ is both lower and farther back than the other central vowels.
The two vowels / ɝ ɜ / often are rounded, but the degree of rounding varies considerably with speaker and dialect.
The vowels / ə ʌ / are usually not rounded.
The weaker or unstressed /ɚ/ is variable with rounding.
This series includes the vowels
/ u ʊ o ɔ ɑ /,
all of which except /ɑ/ tend to be rounded.
The tongue is positioned at the back of the mouth for these vowels, but there is some variation in their position along a front-back dimension.
Because the tongue is in the back of the mouth, the region of greatest constriction is in the pharynx or near the velum.
These vowels constituted 12% of the vowels and diphthongs and about 4% of all sounds recorded.
Also known as a corner vowel.
A vowel that is produced with the tongue in the extreme front and high position.
A sound that carries the phonetic quality of /r/, the rhotic consonant.
This quality is best described acoustically, because the articulatory correlate is complex.
Literally "turned back"; this term is used to denote sounds that carry r coloring, such as the vowels in the words bird and further.
However, "retroflex" is a misleading and inaccurate articulatory description and is best regarded as an arbitrary label.
A sound made with r-coloring.
The ultimate reduced vowel /ə/, which is described as unstressed, lax or short, and mid-central.
Schwa occupies the center of the vowel quadrilateral and can achieve the minimal duration for a vowel sound.
Generally, a shortening or unstressing of a vowel, which may be accompanied by a change in vowel quality, usually in the direction of centralization.
The initial vowel or vocal tract shape of a diphthong.
The terminal vowel or vocal tract shape of a diphthong.
Alteration of a pure vowel (or monophthong) to a dynamic articulation of changing vowel quality.
For example, speakers of Southern speech sometimes produce yes /jɛs/ as /jeəs/ and cat /kæt/ as /keæt/.
Diphthongization should be noted in a phonetic transcription whenever more than one vowel quality can be heard in a syllable nucleus.
Alteration of a diphthong to a pure vowel; that is, loss of the dynamic phonetic quality of a diphthong.
For example, a speaker who says /ɑ/ for /ɑɪ/, as often happens in Southern speech, is monophthongizing diphthong /ɑɪ/.
A sound produced with nasal resonance, usually accompanied by an open velopharyngeal port.
Partial loss of r coloring from a normally rhotacized vowel (/ɝ/ or /ɚ/ in English).
ACOUSTIC VOWEL SPACE
A diagram in which the frequencies of the first two formats, F1 and F2, define a space in which any vowel can be represented as a single point.
This acoustic space corresponds to an articulatory vowel space defined by the dimensions of tongue height and tongue advancement.
The vocal tract is a resonator, meaning that it selectively reinforces certain aspects of sound.
A particular set of resonances.
A resonance of the vocal tract determined by the length and shape of the tract.
States that energy from the source (vibrating vocal folds in the larynx) is filtered or modified by the resonances (formants) of the vocal tract.
RADIATED ACOUSTIC ENERGY
The energy that passes through the vocal tract, through the lips or nose and into the atmosphere.