CHAPTER 1: Overview of Clinical Phonetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER 1: Overview of Clinical Phonetics Deck (29)
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1

CLINICAL PHONETICS

Applications of phonetics to describe speech differences and disorders, including information about speech sounds and the perceptual skills used in clinical settings.

2

PHONETICS

The study of the perception and production of speech sounds.

3

TWO-WAY SCORING

A perceptual system in which speech sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical versus atypical behavior (e.g., correct vs. incorrect, right vs. wrong, etc.).

4

FIVE-WAY SCORING

A perceptual system in which speech sounds are classified as typical versus one of four error types: an addition, a deletion (or omission), a subsitution, or a distortion.

5

DELETION (or OMISSION)

A speech production error in which a sound is omitted.

6

SUBSTITUTION

A speech production error in which a speech sound is replaced by another speech sound.

7

DISTORTION

A speech production error in which a speech sound is recognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correctly.

8

ADDITION

A speech production error in which a sound is incorrectly added (before or after) to another sound.

9

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION

A visual representation of speech sounds, typically accomplished with the symbols of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). The main symbols represent individual phonemes or allophones, and transcriptions also may include marks for sound modifications, stress level, and other aspects of speech. Broad transcription pertains mainy to phonemes of a language, whereas narrow transcription includes finer variations including allophonic modifications.

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BROAD TRANSCRIPTION

Phonetic transcription that uses phonemes exclusively and does not indicate finer variations such as those marked by diacritics in a narrow transcription.

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NARROW (CLOSE) TRANSCRIPTION

Includes symbols to represent both the speech sounds produced and symbols that describe slight variations in the production of those sounds.

12

LINGUISTIC COMPLEXITY

The context in which a sound to be transcribed is embedded, which may range from a sound in isolation to a sound occurring in conversational speech.

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RESPONSE COMPLEXITY

The number of target sounds to be transcribed, which may vary from only one sound to all sounds occurring in a section of speech.

14

TARGET SOUND

The sound to be transcribed, as it occurs in isolation or together with other speech sounds.

15

A clinician asks a child to say some words, each of which contains one r sound (e.g., rug, rabbit, car). After each word, the clinician records whether the child said the r sound correctly. 

What is the linguistic complexity? System complexity? Response complexity?

Linguistic Complexity: word

System Complexity: two-way scoring

Response Complexity: single sound

16

A clinician is interested in knowing whether an adult client is saying s and sh correctly at work. The client obtains a 10-minute recording of her speech at the office. The clinician scores all accurring s and sh sound as correct or incorrect.

What is the linguistic complexity? System complexity? Response complexity?

Linguistic Complexity: continuous speech

System Complexity: two-way scoring

Response Complexity: multiple sounds

17

As part of his management program, a boy reads 20 sentences, each of which is composed of several words containing one or more l sounds. After each sentence, the clinician scores each l sound as correct, distorted, substituted for, added to, or deleted.

What is the linguistic complexity? System complexity? Response complexity?

Linguistic Complexity: sentences

System Complexity: five-way scoring

Response Complexity: single sound

18

An audio recording is made of a 5-year-old girl with extremely delayed speech who is talking about her favorite television program. The clinician later transcribes the entire speech.

What is the linguistic complexity? System complexity? Response complexity?

Linguistic Complexity: continuous speech

System Complexity: phonetic transcription

Response Complexity: multiple sounds

19

A speech-language pathologists administers a word-level articulation test with multiple targets per word (e.g., television, umbrella, scissors). Each target sound is scored as correct, distorted, subsituted for, added to, or deleted.

What is the linguistic complexity? System complexity? Response complexity?

Linguistic Complexity: word

System Complexity: five-way scoring

Response Complexity: multiple sounds

20

When a sound is recognizable but is not produced exactly correctly, this is referred to as a(n) ______________ error.

a. irreversible

b. addition

c. substitution

d. distortion

d. distortion

21

Which of the following levels would be considered the most complex linguistically?

a. Sounds produced in continuous speech

b. Sounds produced in sentences

c. Sounds produced by themselves

d. Sounds produced in words

a. Sounds produced in continuous speech

22

Asking someone to judge if a sound was produced correctly or incorrectly would be an example of?

a. Five-way scoring

b. Being too judgmental

c. Two-way scoring

d. Phonetic transcription

c. Two-way scoring

23

Which of the following is an example of an addition error?

a. Saying "boo" instead of "blue"
b. Saying "buhlue" instead of "blue"
c. Saying nothing in response to the question
d. Saying "bwue" instead of "blue"
 
 

b. Saying "buhlue" instead of "blue"

24

Two-way scoring requires a higher skill level than phonetic transcription.

a. True  
b. False
 

b. False

25

A child saying "top" instead of "stop" has produced an omission error.

a. True
b. False
 

a. True

26

Five-way scoring includes two different types of errors.

a. True
b. False
 

b. False

27

Listening for errors on multiple target sounds at the same time is more difficult than listening for errors on a single target sound.

a. True
b. False
 

a. True

28

Phonetic transcription does not involve making decisions about the speaker's articulation of sounds.

a. True
b. False
 

b. False

29

A speaker who says "twain" for "train" has produced a substitution error.

a. True

b. False

a. True