The part of the speech production mechanism consisting of the lungs, rib cage, abdomen and associated muscles.
The respiratory system provides the major airstream of speech.
The system of speech sound production identified anatomically with the larynx and functionally with control of phonation and voicing.
The system of speech production consisting of the pharyngeal, oral, and nasal structures.
Associated with outflowing air; egressive sounds are formed from an outflowing airstream.
Associated with inflowing air; ingressive sounds are formed from an inflowing airstream.
The chest cavity, containing the lungs, heart, and other organs.
The sequence of syllables and/or words produced on a single breath.
The "voice box" of speech.
A structure made up of cartilage, muscles, and other tissues located within the neck.
The larynx is located on top of the trachea and below the pharynx.
The larynx serves to valve the airstream from the lungs.
The "windpipe" that connects the lungs with the larynx, or "voice box."
The paired cushions of muscle and other tissue that vibrate within the larynx to produce the sound of voicing.
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY OF THE VOICE
The basic rate of vibration of the vocal folds; fundamental frequency is the physical correlate of vocal pitch.
Symbolized as f0
A high fundamental frequency is associated with a high pitched voice.
A low fundamental frequency is associated with a low pitched voice.
The term that denotes one complete cycle of vibration.
Hertz, abbreviated Hz, is the unit of frequency measurement.
The pattern of fundamental frequency and sound duration in speech.
The soft palate, especially its muscular portion.
The velum articulates to open or close the velopharynx.
The velum, or soft-tissue structure that articulates to open or close the velopharynx.
ORAL RADIATION OF SOUND
Transmission of sound through the oral cavity (rather than through the nasal cavity).
The space between the division of the oral and pharyngeal cavities and the entrance to the larynx.
Its anterior boundary is the root of the tongue, and its posterior boundary is the pharyngeal wall.
The space between the lips and the entrance to the pharynx.
The space between the nares (nostrils) and the entrance into the pharynx.
An anatomic structure capable of movements that form the sounds of speech.
The primary articulators are the tongue, jaw, lips, and velopharynx.
NASAL RADIATION OF SOUND
Transmission of sound through the nasal cavity (rather than through the oral cavity).
The opening between the oropharynx and the nasal cavity, which can be closed to prevent the nasal transmission of sound.
The lower jaw.
The bony structure that provides skeletal support for the tongue and lower lip.
The hinge joint by which the jaw, or mandible, attaches to the temporal bone of the skull.
BODY OF THE TONGUE
The mass or bulk of the tongue.
TIP OF THE TONGUE
The forwardmost portion of the tongue, visible upon protrusion of the tongue from the mouth.
The tip of the tongue is used to produce a large number of sounds, including the th consonant and the t consonant.
BLADE OF THE TONGUE
The portion of the tongue that is located behind the tip and in front of the dorsum.
The blade is the part of the tongue used to produce the sh consonant.
DORSUM OF THE TONGUE
The portion of the tongue located between the root and the blade.
The back of the tongue.
The dorsum is the part of the tongue used to produce the g consonant (i.e. "go").
ROOT OF THE TONGUE
The part of the tongue that reaches downward from the dorsum of the tongue to the epiglottis and larynx.
The root does not actually make contacts or closures for English consonants, but it is important in shaping the vocal tract for vowel and consonant sounds.