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What is another name for Work Adjustment Theory?

Person-Environment Correspondence Theory


Who developed Work Adjustment Theory?

Rene Dawis & Lloyd Lofquist.
Predicts work adjustment


Define work adjustment

Continuous and dynamic process by which a worker seeks to achieve and maintain a relationship with the work environment


Define satisfaction

Extent to which individual's needs and requirements are fulfilled by their work.


Define satisfactoriness

Employer's satisfaction with the individual's performance
Whether or not the employer completes their work successfully - supervisor appraisal.


What is the first stage of Work Adjustment Theory?

Assessing client's abilities, values, personality, and interests.


Define abilities. What is the test used to measure abilities (WAT)?

- Reference dimensions for skills. Ability tests measure factors common to many skills
- General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB)- measures general learning ability, verbal ability, numerical ability, spatial ability, form perception, clerical ability, eye/hand coordination, finger dexterity, and manual dexterity.


Define values. What is the test used to measure values (WAT)?

- Represent a grouping of needs.
- Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ) - measures needs, 20 need scales.


What are the six basic values from the MIQ scale?

- Achievement
- Comfort
- Status
- Altruism
- Safety
- Autonomy


Define personality (WAT)

How an individual with particular abilities and values interacts in their work situation.


What are the four characteristics of personality style (WAT)?

- Celerity - how quickly do they handle their tasks?
- Pace - how much effort do they give towards their work?
- Rhythm - what is the pattern of their effort or pace?
- Endurance - how long are they likely to work on a task?


What are interests (WAT)?

Expression of ability-value relationship. WAT does not use any interest assessments - interview.


What are the two main components of phase 2 (WAT)?

- Occupational ability patterns
- Occupational reinforcer patterns.


What are occupational ability patterns?

Developed by U.S. Department of Labor -
-Important abilities that are required for a variety of jobs.
- Assessed roles at various locations - employees took the GATB. Set of GATB ability requirements for each job


What are occupational reinforcer patterns (value patterns)?

- Assesses how much an occupation reinforces the values of individuals.
- Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire (MJDQ) - how much a job reinforces or meets each of 20 needs. Uses same needs as MIQ.


What is the Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS)?

- Combined ability and value patterns used to create it.
- Can match up ability scores and values to over 1,700 occupations.


What is the last stage of WAT?

- Matching abilities, values, and reinforcers of client and job.
- MIQ - matches needs with occupation - C-index - strength of relationship between individual's rating of importance of their need and the reinforcement of that need in particular occupations. Starts with 90 occupations - can be extended to 180.
- MOCS - can match up ability scores and values to over 1,700 occupations.


What are the WAT adjustment styles?

- Flexibility - Inflexibility Scale - ability to tolerate unpleasant or difficult aspects of the job.
- Activeness - Achievement Scale - more likely to change environment/situation if unhappy
- Reactiveness - Reactiveness Scale - more likely to change themselves if unhappy
- Perseverance - No measure, how long they can tolerate adverse conditions before seeking another job


Define adaptive performance

- How individuals cope with change in work lives.
- Proactive behavior - actions taken to make changes in work environment
- Reactive behavior - changes made to self to adjust to work
- Tolerant behavior - how individuals tolerate difficult work issues when proactive or reactive behavior do not work.


What is the purpose of WAT?

- To help a client find the best occupation match
- To predict client's performance and level of satisfaction in occupation.
- To assess the types of issues clients may be having adjusting to their jobs.
- Adjustment to retirement


How is the WAT used to assess issues adjusting to work?

- Assess client's work personality and working environment - assess client's needs/values with MIQ. Then discuss with client which needs are reinforced by their current work. Then, use GATB constructs as a guide - assess abilities of client vs. ability pattern of job. Do not always need to actually use the GATB - takes several hours to administer.
Assess discrepancies between values and abilities of client with ability and reinforcer patterns of job. Better understanding may lead the client to better enjoy their job. Client can try to change the reinforcers to match their needs - ex/ Asking for more autonomy. Or take up hobbies that meet your needs. If those solutions aren't appropriate - change jobs.


What is WAT main focus?

Abilities and values.