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Women with gingivitis may experience more of what during menstruation?

Bleeding on probing


Many epidemic logical surveys have shown that gingivitis is more prevalent in which group?



TMD are more common and more severe and women who are in their reproductive years because the use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy has been associated with the higher prevalence of TMD’S

Both the statement and the reason are correct but not related


The hormones produced during female puberty lead to an increase in

Blood circulation leading to an increase in gingival sensitivity


Which of the following is not a potential outcome of periodontal pathogens and byproducts reaching the placenta and spreading to the fetal placenta unit?

Birth defects


Supine hypotensive syndrome occurs in what percentage of pregnant women?



Regarding the use of nitrous oxide in a patient who is pregnant, if other methods to control anxiety fail, nitrous oxide may be used as a sedation of choice. However, it is recommended to avoid administration of the first trimester and to consult with the patients 0BGYN before administering any drug.

Both statements are true


Because periodontal care has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing periodontal disease and periodontal pathogen’s, it should be provided during pregnancy.

Both statements are true


Mothers who chew gum with xylitol reduce the risk of transmitting



A woman’s periodontal health may be impacted by a variety of factors. Gingival tissues contain receptors for androgens estrogen and progesterone and it was documented that these hormones have effects on the oral mucosa and the periodontium.

Both statements are true


Fluctuation of sex hormones occurs throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle. Studies have shown an increase in bleeding during menstruation compared to the pre-menstrual phase.

Both statements are true


Pubescent girls who diet may be less likely to begin smoking then those not dieting. Women from teenagers to young adults gain an average of 2 to 5 pounds after they quit smoking

Both statements are false


Microbial changes in the gingival sulcus can cause a shift from a healthy microbial flora to a more pathogenic microbial flora. This change has been attributed to those decreased levels of hormones in the blood mainly estrogen and progesterone.

First statement is true, second statement is false


What is the term for an elongated stalk of epulis gravidarum?



It is important to continue with routine dental care during pregnancy because the benefits compensate for any potential risks

Both statements are true


What percentage of physical injuries related to domestic violence or to the head, neck, or mouth?