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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (60):
1

The most abundant cells of the epidermis

Keratinocytes

2

The protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for toughening the skin.

Keratin

3

cells plus a disc-like sensory nerve ending that functions as a sensory receptor for touch.

Merkel disc

4

Skin macrophages that help activate the immune system.

Dendritic cells

5

Cell remnants of the stratum corneum

Cornified keratinocytes

6

The layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but nonviable.

Stratum corneum

7

The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation.

Sudoriferous glands

8

The layer that contains the mitotic viable cells of the epidermis.

Stratum basale

9

Hair that lacks pigment and is often called "immature hair."

Vellus

10

May indicate embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy.

Erythema

11

May indicate fear, anger, anemia, or low blood pressure

Pallor

12

Usually indicates a liver disorder.

Jaundice

13

Appearance of a permanent tan; bronzing.

Addison's disease

14

A bluish color in light-skinned individuals.

Cyanosis

15

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.

16

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

17

The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.

external root sheath

18

The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________.

overexposure to UV radiation

19

A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?

basale

20

Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?

tactile corpuscle

21

Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts

22

The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

23

Which glands produce ear wax

ceruminous glands

24

The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber

25

Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?

squamous cell carcinoma

26

Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?

dendritic cells — activate the immune system

27

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer

28

The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?

stratum basale

29

Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?

glycolipids that are secreted by keratinocytes into extracellular spaces.

30

the dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells

31

The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

the reticular layer

32

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.

33

The friction ridges seen in finger, palm and foot prints are different among various people but very similar between identical twins. This evidence suggests which of the following?

That friction ridges are genetically determined.

34

Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.

35

Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.

36

A dendritic or Langerhan cell is a specialized ________.

phagocytic cell

37

What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?

nutrition and hormones

38

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

eccrine and apocrine

39

The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C

40

Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

in the axillary and anogenital area

41

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.

by hormones, especially androgens

42

In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.

43

Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?

by using the "rule of nines"

44

What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?

catastrophic fluid loss

45

Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months

46

Cells of the stratum spinosum have many interlocking desmosomes that will remain between the cells as they migrate to the stratum corneum. These cell junctions serve the body by ________.

preventing mechanical stress or trauma from damaging the epidermis

47

Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Thickening of epidermis to form a callus in places where the skin is exposed to friction

48

Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Release of chemical signals by keratinocytes that have been damaged by UV light that will increase the production of melanin.

49

Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Release of sweat by eccrine glands in response to heat.

50

Which layer of skin is LEAST protected by melanin?

stratum corneum

51

Which layer of the epidermis will be supplied with the highest levels of oxygen from the blood?

stratum basale

52

A patient has skin that is slightly blue in color. A likely treatment for this person might be ________.

giving the patient supplemental oxygen by mask

53

The arrector pili muscle's predominate, useful function in humans is to ________.

assisting in the release sebum from nearby sebaceous glands

54

Which of the following is not one of the functions of the skin?

Gives the body its overall shape, loss of this function can be seen with the drooping of skin with age.

55

All of the following will help the skin to fight infection but one. Which of the following will have little effect on the skin's ability to fight infection?

Greater production of melanin.

56

A light skinned person who is very cold may have a pale appearance. Which of the following is the best explanation for why this might be so?

The person's blood vessels in the dermis have undergone vasoconstriction (narrowing).

57

A surgeon opens her patient by cutting the integument parallel to the cleavage lines of the dermis (tension lines). This will result in ________.

faster healing of the skin and less scaring

58

A light skinned person may appear pink when they become over heated. The best explanation for this is ________.

the blood vessels of the dermis have undergone vasodilation, bringing a greater volume of blood to the skin

59

William has a cut that is superficial, painful but not bleeding. Based on this information you would predict that the cut has penetrated to ________.

the stratum basale but not the dermal layers

60

The surge of sex hormones that accompanies puberty has a wide range of effects on the body. One of those effects is to enhance the activity of the sebaceous glands, increasing the production of sebum. Which of the following is the most likely to result from the increased sebaceous activity?

Increased oily appearance and more acne.