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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (60):

The most abundant cells of the epidermis



The protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for toughening the skin.



cells plus a disc-like sensory nerve ending that functions as a sensory receptor for touch.

Merkel disc


Skin macrophages that help activate the immune system.

Dendritic cells


Cell remnants of the stratum corneum

Cornified keratinocytes


The layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but nonviable.

Stratum corneum


The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation.

Sudoriferous glands


The layer that contains the mitotic viable cells of the epidermis.

Stratum basale


Hair that lacks pigment and is often called "immature hair."



May indicate embarrassment, fever, hypertension, inflammation, or allergy.



May indicate fear, anger, anemia, or low blood pressure



Usually indicates a liver disorder.



Appearance of a permanent tan; bronzing.

Addison's disease


A bluish color in light-skinned individuals.



Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.


A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?

corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale


The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.

external root sheath


The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________.

overexposure to UV radiation


A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?



Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?

tactile corpuscle


Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts


The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation


Which glands produce ear wax

ceruminous glands


The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber


Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?

squamous cell carcinoma


Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?

dendritic cells — activate the immune system


Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer


The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?

stratum basale


Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?

glycolipids that are secreted by keratinocytes into extracellular spaces.


the dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?

fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells


The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

the reticular layer


Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.


The friction ridges seen in finger, palm and foot prints are different among various people but very similar between identical twins. This evidence suggests which of the following?

That friction ridges are genetically determined.


Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.


Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison's disease?

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.


A dendritic or Langerhan cell is a specialized ________.

phagocytic cell


What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?

nutrition and hormones


Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?

eccrine and apocrine


The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.

99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C


Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?

in the axillary and anogenital area


The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.

by hormones, especially androgens


In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?

it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.


Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?

by using the "rule of nines"


What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?

catastrophic fluid loss


Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months


Cells of the stratum spinosum have many interlocking desmosomes that will remain between the cells as they migrate to the stratum corneum. These cell junctions serve the body by ________.

preventing mechanical stress or trauma from damaging the epidermis


Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Thickening of epidermis to form a callus in places where the skin is exposed to friction


Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Release of chemical signals by keratinocytes that have been damaged by UV light that will increase the production of melanin.


Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negative feedback?

Release of sweat by eccrine glands in response to heat.


Which layer of skin is LEAST protected by melanin?

stratum corneum


Which layer of the epidermis will be supplied with the highest levels of oxygen from the blood?

stratum basale


A patient has skin that is slightly blue in color. A likely treatment for this person might be ________.

giving the patient supplemental oxygen by mask


The arrector pili muscle's predominate, useful function in humans is to ________.

assisting in the release sebum from nearby sebaceous glands


Which of the following is not one of the functions of the skin?

Gives the body its overall shape, loss of this function can be seen with the drooping of skin with age.


All of the following will help the skin to fight infection but one. Which of the following will have little effect on the skin's ability to fight infection?

Greater production of melanin.


A light skinned person who is very cold may have a pale appearance. Which of the following is the best explanation for why this might be so?

The person's blood vessels in the dermis have undergone vasoconstriction (narrowing).


A surgeon opens her patient by cutting the integument parallel to the cleavage lines of the dermis (tension lines). This will result in ________.

faster healing of the skin and less scaring


A light skinned person may appear pink when they become over heated. The best explanation for this is ________.

the blood vessels of the dermis have undergone vasodilation, bringing a greater volume of blood to the skin


William has a cut that is superficial, painful but not bleeding. Based on this information you would predict that the cut has penetrated to ________.

the stratum basale but not the dermal layers


The surge of sex hormones that accompanies puberty has a wide range of effects on the body. One of those effects is to enhance the activity of the sebaceous glands, increasing the production of sebum. Which of the following is the most likely to result from the increased sebaceous activity?

Increased oily appearance and more acne.