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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (44):
1

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand torsion stresses?

compact bone

2

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

fat

3

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

osteoblast

4

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

5

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

decreased epiphyseal plate activity

6

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

diaphysis

7

The term diploë refers to the ________.

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

8

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?

ramus

9

Which of the following is implicated in osteoporosis in older women?

estrogen deficiency due to menopause

10

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

is produced by secondary ossification centers

11

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood?

epiphyseal plate

12

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

13

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

communication

14

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

the osteon

15

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.

osteogenic cells

16

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by ________.

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

17

The central (Haversian) canal that runs through the core of each osteon is the site of ________.

blood vessels and nerve fibers

18

The resilience of bone is thought to come from which of the following?

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

19

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

Ossification centers form in the fibrous connective tissue membrane.

20

The process of bones increasing in thickness is known as ________.

appositional growth

21

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption (breaking bone down) for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

osteoclast

22

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

parathyroid hormone

23

Which bone would likely take the longest to heal?

thigh bone of an elderly individual

24

Cranial bones develop ________.

within fibrous membranes

25

In humans, the effect of the hormone calcitonin is to ________.

temporarily decrease blood calcium levels when administered in large doses

26

At what age do bones reach their peak density?

early adulthood

27

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

he secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

28

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage?

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

29

in the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

30

Spongy bone contains ________.

trabeculae

31

Ossification (Osteogenesis) is the process of ________.

bone formation

32

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

33

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

34

in some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

elevated levels of sex hormones

35

Prevention of osteoporosis includes adequate intake of ________.

calcium and vitamin D

36

What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

cartilage

37

The pubic symphysis connects the two hip bones anteriorly and provides a little movement during childbirth. Choose the most appropriate tissue for this structure that is subjected to both pressure and stretch.

fibrocartilage

38

At an archeological site you discover a bone that is cylindrical in shape, about one inch long and a quarter of an inch wide. Choose the correct classification.

long

39

Choose the structures that most directly provide nutrients and remove wastes from osteocytes in compact bone.

canaliculi

40

Skeletal remains are discovered at an archeological site. X-rays of the femur show evidence of a thin epiphyseal plate. This bone likely belonged to which of the following?

18 year old male

41

When an osteoblast becomes completely surrounded by its own matrix secretions it is referred to as an ________.

osteocyte

42

Choose the best location for obtaining a red bone marrow sample from a patient.

hip bone

43

Select the bone disorder in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones?

osteoporosis

44

Choose which bone marking type would likely increase in size when a weight lifter repeatedly exercises muscles that attach to it.

trochanter