Flashcards in Chapter 5 Power Points Deck (38):
What does DNA stand for
Name the components of DNA
Single phosphate group, a sugar and nitrogen containing base
Base pairs in DNA
Adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine
The double helix represents
A molecule that stores information
Sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins
An organisms complete set of DNA
One or more unique pieces of DNA
A sequence of base pairs in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product usually a protein molecule or RNA
Alternate versions of a gene that code for the same trait
DNA occurs how in prokaryotes
DNA occurs how in eukaryotes
Linear strands of DNA called chromosomes
Percentage of coding DNA in humans
Noncoding region of DNA, and may take the form of short and long sequences that are repeated thousands of times they may also consist of gene fragments duplicate versions of genes a psedogene
All of the genes contained in an organism
The physical manifestation of the instructions
How does a gene effect a flowers color
Two steps transcription, in which a copy of the genes base sequence is made; and translation in which that copy is used to direct the production of a protein
When does transcription occur in eukaryotes
What happens during transcription
The gene based sequence or code is copied into a molecule called mRNA
What happens during translation
The mRNA move out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the cell where the message encoded in the mRNA molecules are used to build proteins
What are the stages of transcription
1: Recognize and bind- once RMA polymerase recognizes a promoter site it binds to one strand of DNA and begins reading the gene message.
2: transcribe- as the DNA strand is processed through the RNA polymerase, the RNA polymerase builds a single strand copy of the gene, called the mRNA transcript.
3: terminate- when the pRMA encounter a code signaling the end of the gene, it stops transcription and releases the mRNA transcript.
4: copping and editing- a cap and tail are often added for protection and to promote recognition and noncoding sections are removed.
What must be present in the cytoplasm for translation to occur
Free amino acids, ribosomal units and transfer RNA
What is transfer RNA
Transfer RNA molecules translate mRNA code, linking specific bases on the mRNA with specific amino acids, that will be used to build a protein.
A tool used to monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously
Elements of gene control
Promoter, operator and regulatory gene
What causes a mutation and what are its effects
Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can lead to changes in the structure and function of the protein production. It can also have a range of effects.
What are the two types of mutant and chromosomal aberration
Point mutations and chromosomal aberrations
One base pair changed
Entire section of chromosomes are altered
Steps forms mutation to illness
1: mutated gene codes for non functioning protein usually an enzyme.
2: the no functioning enzyme can't catalyse the reaction as it normally would bringing it to a holt.
3: the molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates like a blocked assembly line.
4: the accumulating chemical causes sickness and death.
What is biotechnology
Genetic engineering. Adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another, to alter the organisms in useful ways.
Name the five tools of biotechnology
Chop, amplify, insert, grow & identity
Chop cutting DNA into small pieces is a process done by
What is a restricting enzymes only function
Cutting DNA into small pieces
A laboratory technique that allows a tiny piece of DNA to be duplicated repeatedly producing virtually unlimited amounts of it.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Insulin producing bacteria produce
HGH and Erythopoietin
Difficulty with gene therapy
Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed. Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect. Difficulty arising from the transfer organism getting into unintended cells. Difficulty regulating gene expression.