Chapter 5 Power Points Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 5 Power Points > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Power Points Deck (38):
0

What does DNA stand for

Deoxyribonucleic acid

1

Name the components of DNA

Single phosphate group, a sugar and nitrogen containing base

2

Base pairs in DNA

Adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine

3

The double helix represents

DNA

4

A molecule that stores information

Nucleic acid

5

Sections of DNA that contain instructions for making proteins

Genes

6

An organisms complete set of DNA

Genomes

7

One or more unique pieces of DNA

Chromosomes

8

A sequence of base pairs in a DNA molecule that carries the information necessary for producing a functional product usually a protein molecule or RNA

Genes

9

Describe alleles

Alternate versions of a gene that code for the same trait

10

DNA occurs how in prokaryotes

Circular pieces

11

DNA occurs how in eukaryotes

Linear strands of DNA called chromosomes

12

Percentage of coding DNA in humans

2%

13

Introns

Noncoding region of DNA, and may take the form of short and long sequences that are repeated thousands of times they may also consist of gene fragments duplicate versions of genes a psedogene

14

Genotype

All of the genes contained in an organism

15

Phenotype

The physical manifestation of the instructions

16

How does a gene effect a flowers color

Two steps transcription, in which a copy of the genes base sequence is made; and translation in which that copy is used to direct the production of a protein

17

When does transcription occur in eukaryotes

The nucleus

18

What happens during transcription

The gene based sequence or code is copied into a molecule called mRNA

19

What happens during translation

The mRNA move out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm to the cell where the message encoded in the mRNA molecules are used to build proteins

20

What are the stages of transcription

1: Recognize and bind- once RMA polymerase recognizes a promoter site it binds to one strand of DNA and begins reading the gene message.

2: transcribe- as the DNA strand is processed through the RNA polymerase, the RNA polymerase builds a single strand copy of the gene, called the mRNA transcript.

3: terminate- when the pRMA encounter a code signaling the end of the gene, it stops transcription and releases the mRNA transcript.

4: copping and editing- a cap and tail are often added for protection and to promote recognition and noncoding sections are removed.

21

What must be present in the cytoplasm for translation to occur

Free amino acids, ribosomal units and transfer RNA

22

What is transfer RNA

Transfer RNA molecules translate mRNA code, linking specific bases on the mRNA with specific amino acids, that will be used to build a protein.

23

A tool used to monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously

Microarrays

24

Elements of gene control

Promoter, operator and regulatory gene

25

What causes a mutation and what are its effects

Alteration of the sequence of bases in DNA can lead to changes in the structure and function of the protein production. It can also have a range of effects.

26

What are the two types of mutant and chromosomal aberration

Point mutations and chromosomal aberrations

27

Point mutation

One base pair changed

28

Chromosomal aberration

Entire section of chromosomes are altered

29

Steps forms mutation to illness

1: mutated gene codes for non functioning protein usually an enzyme.

2: the no functioning enzyme can't catalyse the reaction as it normally would bringing it to a holt.

3: the molecule with which the enzyme would have reacted accumulates like a blocked assembly line.

4: the accumulating chemical causes sickness and death.

30

What is biotechnology

Genetic engineering. Adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another, to alter the organisms in useful ways.

31

Name the five tools of biotechnology

Chop, amplify, insert, grow & identity

32

Chop cutting DNA into small pieces is a process done by

Restriction enzymes

33

What is a restricting enzymes only function

Cutting DNA into small pieces

34

A laboratory technique that allows a tiny piece of DNA to be duplicated repeatedly producing virtually unlimited amounts of it.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

35

Insulin producing bacteria produce

HGH and Erythopoietin

36

Difficulty with gene therapy

Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed. Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect. Difficulty arising from the transfer organism getting into unintended cells. Difficulty regulating gene expression.

37

What two cells are used in cloning

An egg cell with no nucleus from the cloned and a mammary cell from the mother.