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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (232):
1

Absorption

The transport of fully digested food into the circulatory system to feed the tissues and cells

2

Adductors

Muscles that draw a body part (finger, leg) in toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity.

3

Adipose tissue

Special connective tissue considered fat, which gives smoothness and contour to the body and cushions and insulates the body

4

Adrenal glands

Glands that secrete about 30 steroid hormones and control metabolic processes of the body, including the fight or flight response

5

Abductors

Muscles that draw a body part (leg, finger) away from the midline of the body or of an extremity.

6

Anabolism

Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones

7

Anatomy

The study of human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized and the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts

8

Angular artery

Artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose

9

Anterior auricular artery

Artery that supplies blood to the front part of the ear

10

Aorta

The body's largest artery. The arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.

11

Arteries

Thick walled muscular and flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body

12

Arterioles

Small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries

13

Atrioventricular valves

ATV. valves which are designed to prevent the blood from flowing back into the pumping chamber

14

Atrium

Thin walled upper chamber of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles.

15

Auricularis anterior

Muscly in front of the war that draws the ear forward

16

Auricularis posterior

Behind ear. Draws ear backward

17

Auricularis superior

Above ear. Draws ear upward

18

Auriculotemporal nerve

Nerve that affects the external ear and skin above temple, up to the top of the skull.

19

Autonomic nervous system

ANS. the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels and heart

20

Axon

The extension of a neuron through which impulses are sent away from the cell body to other neurons, glands or muscles

21

Belly

Middle part of a muscle

22

Biceps

Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.

23

Blood

Nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and to remove CO2 and waste from them

24

Blood vessels

Tube-like structures that transport blood to and from heart, and to various tissues of the body; includes arteries, Arterioles, capillaries, venues and veins

25

Body systems

Groups of bodily organs acting together to perform on or more functions. The human body has 11 body systems

26

Brachial artery

Located in upper arm, the brachial artery is a major blood vessel which runs down the arm and ends by dividing Ito the radial and ulnar arteries, which run down through forearm

27

Brain

Part of central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity and the power to think and feel

28

Brain stem

Structure that connects the spinal cord to the brain

29

Buccal nerve

Nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth

30

Buccinator

Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between lips

31

Capillaries

Tiny, thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins. Capillaries bring nutrients to cell and take waste away

32

Cardiac muscle

The involuntary muscle that is the heart. This type of muscle is not found anywhere else in the body

33

Carpus

AKA wrist; a flexible joint composed of eight small bones held together by ligaments

34

Catabolism

The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular efforts, secretions, or digestion.

35

Cell membrane

Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell

36

Cells

Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.

37

Central nervous system

CNS; cerebrospinal nervous system; consistent of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.

38

Cerebrum

Makes up the bulk of the brain and is located in the front, upper part of the cranium.

39

Cerebellum

Lies at the base of the cerebrum and is attached to the brain stem; this term is Latin for "little brain"

40

Cervical cutaneous nerve

Nerve located at the side of the neck that affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone

41

Cervical nerves

Nerves that originate at the spinal cord, whose branches supply the muscles and scalp at the back of the head and neck; affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle

42

Cervical vertebrae

The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in neck region

43

Circulatory system

Cardiovascular system. System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels

44

Clavicle

Collarbone. Bone joining the sternum and scapula

45

Common carotid arteries

Arteries that supply blood to the face, head and neck.

46

Connective tissue

Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons. Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph and fat

47

Corrugator muscle

Facial muscle that draws eyebrows down and wrinkles the forehead vertically

48

Cranium

Oval, bony case that protects the brain.

49

Cytoplasm

All protoplasm except protoplasm in nucleus; the watery fluid containing food for cell growth, reproduction, and self repair.

50

Defecation

Elimination of foods from the body.

51

Deltoid

Large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body

52

Dendrites

Tree like branches on nerve cell. Carries impulses toward cell and receive impulses from other neurons.

53

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA. Blue print for genetic information. Controls function of cell

54

Depressor Anguilla oris

Aka triangularis muscle. Extends along side the chin pulls down corner of mouth

55

Depressor labi inferioris

Aka quadratus labii inferioris. Surrounds lower lip. Draws it to one side

56

Diaphragm

Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.

57

Diencephalon

Located in the uppermost part of midbrain. Consists of thalamus and hypothalamus

58

Digestion

Breakdown of food

59

Digestive enzymes

Chemicals needed to digest certain foods

60

Digestive system

From your mouth to butthole! The whole thing!

61

Digital nerve

Sensory motor nerve that supplies impulses to fingers

62

Eleventh cranial nerve

Aka accessory nerve. Motor nerve that controls neck and shoulder muscles

63

Endocrine glands

Aka ductless glands. Release secretions called hormones

64

Endocrine system

Glands that affect growth, sexual activities, and health of entire body

65

Epicranial aponeurosis

Tendon connecting the occipitalis and frontalis

66

Epicranius

Aka accipitofrontalis. Broad muscle that covers up top of skull

67

Epithelial tissue

Protective covering on body surfaces, such as skin/ mucus membranes

68

Ethmoid bone

Light spongy bone between eye sockets ghat form nasal cavities

69

Excretory system

Group organs that eliminate waste matter

70

Exhalation

Breathing outward. Release CO2

71

Exocrine glands

Aka duct glands. Sweat and oil glands

72

Extensors

Muscles that straighten wrist, hand and fingers

73

External carotid artery

Artery that supplies blood to anterior parts of scalp, ear, face, neck and side of head

74

External jugular vein

Located on side of neck. Carries blood to the heart

75

Facial artery

Supplies blood to lower face

76

Fifth cranial nerve

Chief sensory nerve, also motor nerve muscle that controls chewing

77

Flexors

Extensor muscles of the wrist, involved with flexing the wrist.

78

Frontal artery

Artery that supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids

79

Frontal bone

Bone forming the forehead

80

Frontalis

Front anterior portion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows

81

Glands

They remove certain elements from blood to convert them into new compounds. They secrete those compounds

82

Greater auricular nerve

Nerve at the sides of the neck affecting the face, ears, neck, parotid gland.

83

Greater occipital nerve

Located in the back of the head, affects scalp as far up as the top of the head

84

Heart

Muscular cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system

85

Hemoglobin

Iron containing protein in red blood cells that bind oxygen

86

Histology

Aka microscopic anatomy; the study of the structure and composition of tissue

87

Hormones

Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or the body fluid to another part of the body, or a body organ, to stimulate functional activity or secretion, such as insulin, adrenaline and estrogen

88

Humerus

Uppermost and largest bone in the arm. Extending for the elbow to the shoulder

89

Hyoid bone

U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscle

90

Inferior labial artery

Supplies blood to lower lip

91

Infraorbital artery

Artery that originates from the internal maxillary artery and supplies blood to the eye muscles

92

Infraorbital nerve

Nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth

93

Infratrochlear nerve

Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose

94

Ingestion

Eating

95

Inhalation

Breathing in through nose or mouth

96

Insertion

Point where the skeletal muscle is attached to a bone or other more moveable body part

97

Integumentary system

The skin and its accessory organs, such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails

98

Internal carotid artery

Artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and internal ear.

99

Internal jugular vein

Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck

100

Interstitial fluid

Blood plasma found in the spaces between tissues

101

Joint

Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton

102

Kidneys

One of the organs which supports the excretory system by eliminating water and waste

103

Lacrimal bones

Small, thin bones located in the anterior medial walk of the orbits (eye sockets)

104

Lateral pterygoid

Muscles that coordinate with the masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid muscles to open and close mouth, bring jaw forward; chewing muscles

105

Latissimus dorsi

Large flat triangular muscle covering the lower back

106

Levator anguli oris

Caninus. A muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.

107

Levator labii superioris

Muscle surrounding upper lip

108

Liver

One of the organs which supports the excretory system by removing toxic maste

109

Lungs

Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one respiratory cycle

110

Lymph

Clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces f the body. Takes wast away from surrounding cells

111

Lymph capillaries

Lymphatic vessels that occur in clusters and are distributed throughout most of the body

112

Lymph nodes

Gland like structures found inside lymphatic vessels and help fight infection

113

Lymphatic/immune system

Lymph, lymph nodes, thymus gland, spleen, and lymph vessels

114

Mandible

Lower jaw bone

115

Mandibular nerve

branch of the fifth cranial nerve supplies blood to lower part of face

116

Masseter

One of the muscles that coordinate with temporalis, medical pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles to open and close the mouth and bring jaw forward

117

Maxillary

Forms upper jaw

118

Maxillary nerve

Branch of the fifth cranial nerve. Supplies blood to upper part of the face

119

Medial pterygoid

One of the muscles that coordinate with the masseter, temporalis, and lateral pterygoid muscles to open and close the mouth and bring the jaw forward; sometimes referred to as chewing muscles

120

Median nerve

Nerve, smaller than the ulnar and radial nerves, that supplies the arm and hand

121

Melasma

Aka pregnancy mask: skin condition that is triggered by hormones that causes darker pigmentation in area such as the upper lip and around the eyes and cheeks

122

Mental nerve

Nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin

123

Mentalis

Muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin

124

Metabolism

1. Cells are nourished and carry out their activities 2. Humans/animals changing food into waste and getting nutrients from the food

125

Metacarpus

Aka Palm. Consists of five long slender bones called metacarpal bones

126

Middle temporal artery

Artery that supplies blood to the temples

127

Mitosis

Cells dividing into two new cells

128

Mitral valve

Aka bicuspid valve. A valve in which from the left atrium the blood flows through into the left ventricle

129

Motor nerves

Aka efferent nerves. Cary impulses from the brain to the muscle glands. These transmitted impulses produce movement

130

Muscular system

Body system that covers shapes and supports the skeleton tissue. Contracts and moves

131

Muscular tissue

Tissue that contracts and moves

132

Myology

Study of nature structure function and diseases of the muscles

133

Nasal bones

Bones that form the bridge of the nose

134

Nasal nerve

Nerve that affects the point and lower sides of nose

135

Nasalis muscle

Two-part muscle which covers the nose

136

Nerve tissue

Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions

137

Nerves

Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue through which impulses are transmitted

138

Nervous system

Body system composed of the brain spinal cord and nerves controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently

139

Neurology

The scientific study of the structure function and pathology of the nervous system

140

Neuron or nerve cell

Basic unit of nervous system

141

Nonstriated muscles

Aka involuntary muscles or smooth muscles. Function automatically without conscious will

142

Nucleoplasm

Fluid with in the nucleus of the cell that contains protein and DNA. Determines our genetic makeup

143

Nucleus

Sense active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. Plays an important part in cell reproduction

144

Occipital artery

Artery that supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown

145

Occipital bone

Hindmost bone of skull

146

Occipitalis

Back of epicranius. Draws scalp backwards

147

Ophthalmic nerve

Branch of fifth cranial nerve. Supplies forehead upper eyelids and interior portion of the scalp

148

Orbicularis oculi

Ring muscle f the eye socket. Closes eyelid

149

Orbicularis oris

Flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips

150

Organelle

Small structures or mini organs with in a cell that have their own function

151

Organs

Structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions in plants and animals

152

Origin

Part of the muscle that does not move. It is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle

153

Os

Means bone. Prefix

154

Osteology

Study of anatomy, structure, and functions of bones

155

Ovaries

Function in sexual reproduction as well as determining make and female sexual characteristics

156

Palatine bone

Two bones that form the hard palate of the mouth

157

Pancreas

Secretes enzyme-producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbs, proteins and fats. The islet of langerhans cells within the pancreas control insulin and glucagon production

158

Parasympathetic division

Part of the autonomic nervous when system. It operates under normal no stressful situations. Helps restore you after stressful event

159

Parathyroid glands

Regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels so that the nervous and muscular systems can function regularly

160

Parietal artery

Artery that supplies blood to the side and crown of the head

161

Parietal bones

Bones that form the sides and top of the cranium

162

Pectoralis major and minor

Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm

163

Percardium

Double layered membrane sac enclosing the heart. Made of epithelial tissue

164

Peripheral nervous system

PNS. System of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system. Has both sensory and motor nerves

165

Peristalis

Moving food along digestive tract

166

Phalanges

Fingers

167

Physiology

Study of body functions

168

Pineal gland

A gland located in the brain. Plays major role in sexual development

169

Pituitary gland

Found in center of head.

170

Plasma

Fluid part of blood

171

Platelets

Thrombocytes. Helps blood clot

172

Platysma

Muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin. For the jaw movement

173

Posterior auricular artery

Supplies blood to scalp above the eyes

174

Posterior auricular nerve

Affects the muscle behind the ear at the base of the skull

175

Procerus

Muscle that covers bridge of nose. Depresses wmeyebrows

176

Pronators

Muscles that turn the hand inward

177

Protoplasm

Colorless jelly like substance

178

Pulmonary circulation.

Send blood from heart to lungs to be cleaned. Then back to heart

179

Radial nerve

Supplies thumb side of arm and back of hand

180

Radius

Smaller bone. Thumb side

181

Red blood cells

Made in red bone marrow. Transports CO2 and O

182

Reflex

Automatic reaction

183

Reproductive system

Ya parts

184

Respiration

Getting rid of CO2 and getting O

185

Respiratory system

Lungs and air passages

186

Ribs

Twelve pairs of bones protecting lots of organs

187

Risorius

Grinning muscle

188

Scapula

Shoulder blade

189

Sensory nerves

Afferent nerves. Carries messages to the brain

190

Serratus anterior

Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing in and raising the arm

191

Seventh cranial nerve

Facial nerve. Chief motor nerve of the face. Emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscles of the neck.

192

Skeletal system

All ya bones

193

Skin

Protective coating for body

194

Smaller occipital nerve

Lesser occipital nerve. Located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear

195

Sphenoid bone

Joins all bones of the cranium together

196

Spinal cord

Extends from the brain to the butt.

197

Sternocleidomastoid

SCM. muscle of the neck that depresses and rotates the head.

198

Sternum

Breast bone. In the middle for rib support

199

Striated muscles

Voluntary muscles

200

Submental artery

Supplies blood to chin and lower lip

201

Superficial temporal artery

Continuation of carotid nerve artery

202

Superior labial artery

Upper lip and region of the nose

203

Supinator

Muscle of forearm that rotates the radius outward and palm upward

204

Supraorbital artery

Upper eyelid and forehead

205

Supraorbital nerve

Forehead, scalp, eyebrow, upper eyelid

206

Sympathetic division

Part of ANS, stimulates activity in stressful situations

207

Systematic circulation

Heart>body>heart

208

Temporal bones

Forms side of head in ear region

209

Temporal nerve

Side of forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of cheek

210

Temporalis muscle

A chewing muscle

211

Testes

Male organs

212

Thorax

All ya parts from sternum to bottom ribs, including spine

213

Thyroid gland

Controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins

214

Tibial nerves

Division of sciatic nerve

215

Tissue

Collection of cells

216

Transverse facial artery

Skin and masseter

217

Trapezius

Muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back

218

Triceps

Large muscle covering the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm

219

Tricuspid valve

Heart valve that prevents back flow

220

Turbinal bones

Spongy bone.

221

Ulna

Bone on the forearm on the pinky side

222

Ulnar artery

Supplies blood to ulna side of arm

223

Valves

Structures that close and shut

224

Vascular system

Heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries

225

Veins

Carry blood

226

Ventricle

Lower chamber of heart

227

Venules

Small vessels that connect the capillaries and drain into veins

228

Vomber bone

Part of nasal septum

229

White blood cells

Destroy bacteria

230

Zygomatic bones

Cheek bones

231

Zygomatic nerve

Affects the skin of the temple, side of forehead and upper part of cheek

232

Zygomaticus major and minor

Laughing and smiling muscles