Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

Esthiology Freshman Block > Chapter 13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (114):
1

Alcohol

Antiseptic and solvent used in perfumes, lotions, and astringents. SD alcohol is a special denatured ethyl alcohol

2

Algae

Derived from minerals and photo hormones; remunerative sand revitalizes the skin

3

Allantion

An anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the herb comfrey; it is used in creams, hand lotion, hair lotion, aftershave, and other skin-soothing cosmetics for its ability to heal wounds and skin ulcers and to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue.

4

Aloe Vera

Most popular botanical used in cosmetic formulations; emollient and film-forming gum resin with hydrating, softening, healing, anti microbial and anti-inflammatory properties

5

Alpha lipoid acid

A natural molecule found in every cell in the body; it is a powerful antioxidant and is soluble in water and oil

6

Alum

Compound made of aluminum, potassium or ammonium sulfate with strong astringent action

7

Ampoules

Small, sealed vials containing a single application of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base

8

Alpha hydroxy acids

Abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin; mild acids: glycolic, lactic, malic, and tartaric acid. AHAs exfoliate by loosening the bonds between dead corneum cells and dissolve the intercellular matrix. Acids also stimulate cell renewal

9

Anhydrous

Describes products that do no contain any water

10

Aromatherapy

Therapeutic use of plant aromas and essential oils for beauty and health treatment purposes; involves the use of highly concentrated, nonoily, and volatile essential oils to induce such reactions as relaxation and invigoration, or to simply create a pleasant fragrance during a service

11

Astringents

Liquids that help remove excess oil on the skin.

12

Azulene

Derived from chamomile plant and characterized by its deep blue color; has anti-inflammatory and soothing properties

13

Bentley peroxide

Drying ingredient with antibacterial properties commonly used for blemishes and acne

14

Beta-glucans

Ingredients used in antiaging cosmetics to help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by stimulating the formation of collagen.

15

Beta hydroxy acids

Abbreviated BHAs; exfoliating organic acid; salicylic acid; milder than alpha hydroxy acids. BHAs dissolve oil and are beneficial for oily skin

16

Binders

Substances such as glycerin that bind, or hold, products together

17

Botanicals

Ingredients derived from plants

18

Calendula

Anti-inflammatory plant extract

19

Carbomers

Ingredients used to thicken creams; frequently used in gel products

20

Carrot

Rich in vitamin A, commonly derived from seeds and as an oil; also used as product colorant

21

Certified colors

Inorganic color agents also known as metal salts; listed on ingredient labels as D&C

22

Chamomile

Plant extract with calming and soothing properties

23

Chelating agent

A chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative

24

Chemical exfoliation

Chemical agent that dissolves dead skin cells and the intercellular matrix, or "glue" that holds them together

25

Clay masks

Oil-absorbing cleansing masks that draw impurities to the surface of the skin as they dry and tighten

26

Cleansers

Soaps and detergents that clean the skin

27

Coenzyme Q10

Powerful antioxidant that protects and revitalizes skin cells

28

Colorants

Substances such as vegetables, pigment, or mineral dyes that gives products color.

29

Comedogenicity

Tendency of any topical substance to cause or to worsen a buildup in the follicle, leading to the development of a comedo (black head)

30

Cosmeceuticals

Products intended to improve skin's health and appearance

31

Cosmetics

As defined by the FDA: articles that are intended to be rubbed,poured, sprinkled or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance

32

Delivery systems

Systems that deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis

33

Detergents

Type of surfactant used as cleaners in skin care products

34

DMAE

Dimethylaminoethanol; antioxidant that stabilizes cell membranes and boosts the effect of other antioxidants

35

Echinacea

Derivative of the purple coneflower; prevents infection and has healing properties; used internally to support the immune system

36

Emollients

Oil or fatty ingredients that lubricate, moisturize and prevent water loss

37

Emulsifiers

Surfactants that cause oil and water to mix and form an emulsion; an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend

38

Enzyme peels

Enzyme products that dissolve keratin proteins and exfoliate the skin

39

Essential oils

Oils derived from herbs; have many different properties and effects on the skin and psyche

40

Exfoliants

Mechanical and chemical products or processes used to exfoliate the skin

41

Exfoliation

Peeling or sloughing of the outer layer of skin

42

Arty acids

Emollients; lubricant ingredients derived from plant oils or animal fats.

43

Fatty alcohols

Emollients: fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen

44

Fatty esters

Emollients produced from fatty acids and alcohols

45

Fragrances

Give products scent

46

Fresheners

Skin-freshening lotions with low alcohol content

47

Functional ingredients

Ingredients in cosmetic products that allow the products to spread, give them body and texture, and give them a specific form such as lotion, cream or gel. Preservatives are also functional ingredients

48

Glycerin

Formed by decomposition of oils or fats; excellent skin softer and humectant; very strong water binder; sweet, colorless, oily substance used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams

49

Glycoproteins

Skin-conditioning agents derived from carbohydrates and proteins that enhance cellular metabolism and wound healing.

50

Homage

Also know as roll-off mask; exfoliating creams that are rubbed off the skin

51

Grapeseed extract

Powerful antioxidant with soothing properties

52

Green tea

Powerful antioxidant and soothing agent; antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and a stimulant

53

Healing agents

Substances such as chamomile or aloe that help to heal the skin.

54

Herbs

Hundreds of different herbs that contain phytohormones are used in skin car products and cosmetics; they heal, stimulate, soothe and moisturize

55

Horsechestnut

Extract containing bioflavonoids; also known as vitamin P. Helps strengthen capillary walls; used for couperose areas or telangiectasia

56

Humectants

Ingredients that attract water. Humectants draw moisture to the skin and soften its surface, diminishing lines caused by dryness

57

Hydrators

Ingredients that attract water to the skins surface

58

Hydrophilic agents

Ingredients that attract water to the skins surface

59

Jojoba

Oil widely used in cosmetics; extracted from the bean-like seeds of the desert shrub. Used as a lubricant and noncomedogenic emollient and moisturizer.

60

Keratolytic

Agent that causes exfoliation or sloughing of skin cells

61

Kojic acid

Skin brightening agent

62

Lakes

Insoluble pigments made by combining a dye with an inorganic material

63

Lanolin

Emollient with moisturizing properties; also an emulsifier with high water absorption capabilities

64

Lavender

Antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, balancing, energizing, soothing and healing.

65

Licorice

Anti-irritant used for sensitive skin; helps lighten pigmentation

66

Lipids

Fats or fat-like substances. Lipids help repair and protect the barrier function of the skin

67

Liposomes

Closed-lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate ingredients, target their delivery to specific tissues of the skin.

68

Lubricants

Coat the skin and reduce friction; mineral oil is a lubricant

69

Masks

Also known as pack. Concentrated treatment products often composed of herbs, vitamins, mineral clays, moisturizing agents, skin softeners... Nourish and treat the skin

70

Mechanical exfoliation

Physical method of rubbing dead cells off the skin

71

Methylparaben

One of the most frequently used preservatives because of its very low sensitizing potential; combats bacteria and molds; noncomedogenic

72

Mineral oil

Lubricant derived from petroleum

73

Modelage masks

Also known as thermal masks; thermal heat masks. Facial masks containing special crystals of gypsum, a plaster like ingredient.

74

Moisturizers

Products formulated to add moisture to the skin

75

Noncertified colors

Colors that are organic, meaning they come from animal or plant extracts; they can also be natural mineral pigments.

76

Oil soluble

Compatible with oil

77

Olfactory system

Gives you your sense of smell

78

Papaya

Natural enzyme used for exfoliation and in enzyme peels

79

Para end

One of the most commonly used groups of preservatives in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries; provide bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity against a diverse number of organisms.

80

Paraffin wax masks

Masks used to warm the skin and promote penetration of ingredients through the heat trapped under the surface of the paraffin.

81

Peptides

Chains of amino acids that stimulate fibroblasts, cell metabolism, collagen and improve skins firmness. Larger chains are called polypeptides

82

Performance ingredients

Ingredients in cosmetic products that cause the actual changes in appearance of the skin

83

Petroleum jelly

Is skydive agent that restores the barrier layer by holding in water.

84

PH adjusters

Acids or alkalis used to adjust the pH of products

85

Phytotheapy

Use of plant extracts for therapeutic benefits.

86

Polyglucans

Ingredients derived from yeast cells that help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism: also hydrophilic and help preserve and protect collagen and elastin.

87

Polymers

Chemical compounds formed by combining a number of small molecules into long chain like structures

88

Potassium hydroxide

Strong alkali used in soaps and creams

89

Preservatives

Chemical agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic formulations. These kill bacteria and prevent products from spoiling

90

Propylene glycol

Humectants often used in dry or sensitive skin moisturizers

91

Quaternium 15

All-purpose preservative active against bacteria, mold, and yeast. It is probably the greatest formaldehyde-releaser among cosmetic preservatives

92

Retinol

Natural form of vitamin A. Stimulates cell repair and helps to normalize skin cells by generating new ones.

93

Rose

Credited with moisturizing, astringent, tonic and deodorant properties. Found in forms of rose extracts, oil or water.

94

Salicylic acid

Beta hydroxy acid with exfoliating and antiseptic properties; natural sources include sweet birch, willow bark, and wintergreen

95

Seaweed

Seaweed derivatives such as algae have many nourishing properties; known for its humectant and moisturizing properties, vitamin content, metabolism stimulation and detoxification, and aiding skin firmness.

96

Serums

Concentrated liquid ingredients for the skin designed to penetrate and treat various skin conditions

97

Silicones

Oil that is chemically combined with silicone and oxygen and leaves a noncomedogenic, protective film on the surface of the skin.

98

Sodium bicarbonate

Baking soda: an alkaline inorganic salt used as a buffering agent, neutralizer and a pH adjuster.

99

Sorbitol

Humectant that absorbs moisture from the air to prevent dry skin

100

Sphingolipids

Cermaides, or lipid material, that are a natural part of the intercellular matrix. Glycosphingolipids and phospholipids are also natural lipids found in the barrier later

101

Squalane

Derived from olives: desensitizes and nourishes. An emollient.

102

Squalene

Originally from shark liver oil; also accurate in small amounts in olive oil wheat germ oil, and rice bran oil: also found in human sebum. A lubricant and perfume fixative

103

Stem cells

Derived from plants to protect or stimulate our own skin stem cells. For health and anti aging benefits

104

Sulfur

Sulfur reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skins surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne products

105

Sun protection factor

Abbreviated SPF. Ability of a product to delay sun-induced erythema, the visible sign of sun damage. Based on UVB protection

106

Tea tree

Soothing and antiseptic: anti fungal properties

107

Tissue respiratory factor

Abbreviated TRF. Ingredient derived from yeast cells that function as an anti-inflammatory and moisturizing ingredient.

108

Titanium dioxide

Inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UV radiation

109

Toners

Also known as fresheners. Liquids designed to tone and tighten the skins surface

110

Urea

properties include enhancing the penetration abilities of other substances; anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and deodorizing action that protects the skins surface and helps maintain healthy skin

111

Vehicles

Spreading agents

112

Water soluble

Mix able with water

113

Witch hazel

Extracts from the bark of the hamamelis shrub. Can be soothing agent. Or in higher concentration, an astringent

114

Zinc oxide

Inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UVA radiation. Also to protect,soothe, and heal skin. Somewhat astringent, antiseptic, and antibacterial