Flashcards in Chapter 6 Digestive System Deck (123):
Functions of the digestive system are...
Intake and digestion of food and water
Absorption of nutrients
Elimination of solid wastes
What is the combining form for nourishment?
What are the structures of the digestive system?
Mouth or oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, accessory organs of digestion
Combing forms for lips
cheil/o and labi/o
Combining form for cheek
What are the walls of the oral cavity called?
Combining form for palate
wrinkle or fold
Combining form for tongue
gloss/o and lingu/o
What is papillae?
elevations on the tongue
What are the structures of the mouth?
lips, cheeks, palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium
Combining forms for mouth
or/o and stomat/o
Boundaries of the mouth are...
Maxilla and mandible
Combining form for jaw
Having an elongated mandible is called...
Having a shortened mandible is called...
Teeth are arranged in the..
Maxillary and mandibular arcade
Combining forms for teeth
dent/o, dent/i, and odont/o
What is dentition?
Refers to the teeth as a whole
Combining for for shedding
True or false:
The primary dentition is permanant
False, it is temporary
What is the primary dentition also known as
What is deciduous dentition in laymans terms?
Shedding baby teeth
Secondary dentition is ______.
Dental formula for an adult dog
I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3
Front cutting tooth
Long, pointed bonelike tooth for grasping and tearing
Cheek tooth that grinds food
Caudal cheeck tooth that grinds food
What is the outer surface of the tooth, located in the crown?
What is the outer surface of the tooth, located in the root?
What is the connective tissue called that surrounds the pulp of the tooth?
What is the inner part of the tooth that contains nerves, vessels, and loose connective tissue called?
What is gingiva?
Mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth
Combining form for gingiva
Groups of cells that secrete saliva are called...
How are salivary glands named?
By their location
Combining forms for salivary glands
sialaden/o and sial/o
What is the pharynx
Cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and GI systems
The throat is also known as...
Combining form for pharynx
The collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach is what?
The esophagus is also known as what?
Combining form for esophagus
Where does the esophagus enter?
Stomach through an opening that is surrounded by a sphincter
What is a sphincter?
Ringlike muscle that constricts an opening
Where are the (remaining) digestive organs found?
The abdomen is also known as the...
Peritoneal or abdominal cavity
Where is the abdomen located?
Between the diaphragm and pelvis
Combining forms for abdomen
abdomin/o and celi/o
Combining form for abdomen or flank
What is the peritoneum?
Membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavity and some of the organs in this area
The layer that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities is called the...
Paxetal or perietel peritoneum
The layer that covers the abdominal organs is called the...
What is a fold of the peritoneum that connects the stomach to the other visceral organs called?
What is the stomach?
Saclike organ that aides in digestion of food
Combining form for stomach
Name the parts of the stomach
Cardia, fundus, body, antrum, pylorus, pyloric sphincter, rugae
What is the cardia of the stomach?
Entrance near esophagus
What is the fundus?
Cranial, rounded part of stomach, expands when stomach is full
What is the body of the stomach?
What is the antrum?
Caudal part of stomach
What is the pylorus?
Narrow passage between stomach and duodenum
What is the pyloric sphincter?
Muscle ring that controls flow of material from stomach to small intestine
What is rugae in the stomach?
Folds in the mucosa
Ruminants ______ and _______ their food.
Regurgitate and remasticate
Parts of the ruminant stomach
Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abdomasum
What is the rumen?
Largest part of a ruminants stomach, serves as a fermentation vat
What is the reticulum
Most cranial portion of ruminants stomach
What is omasum?
Third part of ruminants stomach that squeezes fluid out of the food bolus
What is the abdomasum?
Fourth part of the ruminants stomach that is the true glandular stomach (has secretions)
Where is the small intestine?
Extends from the pylorus to the large intestine
What holds the small intestine in place?
Mesentery (Hangs in baack)
Combining form for small intestine
Segments of the small intestine are:
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is the duodenum?
Proximal part of the small intestine
Combining forms for duodenum
duoden/i or duoden/o
What is the jejunum?
Middle part of small intestine (long piece)
Combining form for jejunum
What is the ileum?
Distal part of small intestine (connects to large intestine)
Combining form for ileum
Where is the large intestine?
Extends from the ileum to the anus
The segments of the large intestine are:
Cecum, colon, rectum, anus
What is the cecum?
Pouch that takes food from the ileum (part of large intestine)
Combining form for cecum
What is the colon?
Varies among species
Combining form for colon
What is the rectum?
Caudal portion of large intestine (pouch)
Combining form for rectum
What is the anus?
Caudal opening of the large intestine
Combining form for anus
Combining form for anus and rectum together
Where is the liver located?
Caudal to the diaphragm
Combining form for liver
Combining form for bile
Combining form for sac
Combining form for receptacle
What does the pancreas do
Combining form for pancreas
What is digestion
process of breaking down foods into nutrients that the body can use
What is metabolism
Processes involved in the body's use of nutrients (changing)
Combining form for change or beyond
What is anabolism?
Building up of body cells
What is catabolism?
Breaking down of body cells
What is the process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system called?
What is absoption also known as
Where does absorption occur?
What is villi?
Tiny hairlike projections that help increase the surface area of the small intestine, allowing more nutrients to be absorbed
Combining form for tuft of hair
What are the valleys that result from the projections of the small intestine?
Where is food grasped and collected?
In the oral cavity
What is prehension?
Grasping food with lips or teeth
What is mastication?
Breaking food into smaller pieces (chewing)
What is deglutition?
Moving chewed food into the pharynx and then into the esophagus
What closes off the entrance to the trachea?
What moves food down the esophagus?
Gravity and peristalsis
What is peristalsis
Series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscle
Combining form for contraction
How does food move through the small intestine?
Peristalsis and segmentation