Chapter 6 Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Digestive System Deck (123):
1

Functions of the digestive system are...

Intake and digestion of food and water
Absorption of nutrients
Elimination of solid wastes

2

What is the combining form for nourishment?

aliment/o

3

What are the structures of the digestive system?

Mouth or oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, accessory organs of digestion

4

Combing forms for lips

cheil/o and labi/o

5

Combining form for cheek

bucc/o

6

What are the walls of the oral cavity called?

Cheeks

7

Combining form for palate

palat/o

8

rug/o

wrinkle or fold

9

Combining form for tongue

gloss/o and lingu/o

10

What is papillae?

elevations on the tongue

11

filiform

threadlike

12

fungiform

mushroom like

13

vallate

cup-shaped

14

What are the structures of the mouth?

lips, cheeks, palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium

15

Combining forms for mouth

or/o and stomat/o

16

Boundaries of the mouth are...

Maxilla and mandible

17

Combining form for jaw

gnath/o

18

Having an elongated mandible is called...
(Underbite)

Prognathia

19

Having a shortened mandible is called...
(Overbite)

Brachygnathia

20

Teeth are arranged in the..

Maxillary and mandibular arcade

21

Combining forms for teeth

dent/o, dent/i, and odont/o

22

What is dentition?

Refers to the teeth as a whole

23

Combining for for shedding

decidu/o

24

True or false:
The primary dentition is permanant

False, it is temporary

25

What is the primary dentition also known as

deciduous dentition

26

What is deciduous dentition in laymans terms?

Shedding baby teeth

27

Secondary dentition is ______.

Permanant
("adult teeth")

28

Dental formula for an adult dog

I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3

29

Front cutting tooth

Incisor

30

Long, pointed bonelike tooth for grasping and tearing

Canine

31

Cheek tooth that grinds food

Premolar

32

Caudal cheeck tooth that grinds food

Molar

33

What is the outer surface of the tooth, located in the crown?

Enamel

34

What is the outer surface of the tooth, located in the root?

Cementum

35

What is the connective tissue called that surrounds the pulp of the tooth?

Dentin

36

What is the inner part of the tooth that contains nerves, vessels, and loose connective tissue called?

Pulp

37

What is gingiva?

Mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth

38

Combining form for gingiva

gingiv/o

39

Groups of cells that secrete saliva are called...

Salivary glands

40

How are salivary glands named?

By their location

41

Combining forms for salivary glands

sialaden/o and sial/o

42

What is the pharynx

Cavity in the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and GI systems

43

The throat is also known as...

The pharynx

44

Combining form for pharynx

Pharyng/o

45

The collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach is what?

Esophagus

46

The esophagus is also known as what?

Gullet

47

Combining form for esophagus

esophag/o

48

Where does the esophagus enter?

Stomach through an opening that is surrounded by a sphincter

49

What is a sphincter?

Ringlike muscle that constricts an opening

50

Where are the (remaining) digestive organs found?

Abdomen

51

The abdomen is also known as the...

Peritoneal or abdominal cavity

52

Where is the abdomen located?

Between the diaphragm and pelvis

53

Combining forms for abdomen

abdomin/o and celi/o

54

Combining form for abdomen or flank

lapar/o

55

What is the peritoneum?

Membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavity and some of the organs in this area

56

The layer that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities is called the...

Paxetal or perietel peritoneum

57

The layer that covers the abdominal organs is called the...

Visceral peritoneum

58

What is a fold of the peritoneum that connects the stomach to the other visceral organs called?

Omentum

59

What is the stomach?

Saclike organ that aides in digestion of food

60

Combining form for stomach

gastr/o

61

Name the parts of the stomach

Cardia, fundus, body, antrum, pylorus, pyloric sphincter, rugae

62

What is the cardia of the stomach?

Entrance near esophagus

63

What is the fundus?

Cranial, rounded part of stomach, expands when stomach is full

64

What is the body of the stomach?

Main part

65

What is the antrum?

Caudal part of stomach

66

What is the pylorus?

Narrow passage between stomach and duodenum

67

What is the pyloric sphincter?

Muscle ring that controls flow of material from stomach to small intestine

68

What is rugae in the stomach?

Folds in the mucosa

69

Ruminants ______ and _______ their food.

Regurgitate and remasticate

70

Parts of the ruminant stomach

Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abdomasum

71

What is the rumen?

Largest part of a ruminants stomach, serves as a fermentation vat

72

What is the reticulum

Most cranial portion of ruminants stomach

73

What is omasum?

Third part of ruminants stomach that squeezes fluid out of the food bolus

74

What is the abdomasum?

Fourth part of the ruminants stomach that is the true glandular stomach (has secretions)

75

Where is the small intestine?

Extends from the pylorus to the large intestine

76

What holds the small intestine in place?

Mesentery (Hangs in baack)

77

Combining form for small intestine

enter/o

78

Segments of the small intestine are:

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

79

What is the duodenum?

Proximal part of the small intestine

80

Combining forms for duodenum

duoden/i or duoden/o

81

What is the jejunum?

Middle part of small intestine (long piece)

82

Combining form for jejunum

jenun/o

83

What is the ileum?

Distal part of small intestine (connects to large intestine)

84

Combining form for ileum

ile/o

85

Where is the large intestine?

Extends from the ileum to the anus

86

The segments of the large intestine are:

Cecum, colon, rectum, anus

87

What is the cecum?

Pouch that takes food from the ileum (part of large intestine)

88

Combining form for cecum

cec/o

89

What is the colon?

Varies among species

90

Combining form for colon

col/o

91

What is the rectum?

Caudal portion of large intestine (pouch)

92

Combining form for rectum

rect/o

93

What is the anus?

Caudal opening of the large intestine

94

Combining form for anus

an/o

95

Combining form for anus and rectum together

proct/o

96

Where is the liver located?

Caudal to the diaphragm

97

Combining form for liver

hepat/o

98

Combining form for bile

chol/e

99

Combining form for sac

cyst/o

100

Combining form for receptacle

doch/o

101

What does the pancreas do

Produces enzymes

102

Combining form for pancreas

pancreat/o

103

What is digestion

process of breaking down foods into nutrients that the body can use

104

What is metabolism

Processes involved in the body's use of nutrients (changing)

105

Combining form for change or beyond

Meta-

106

What is anabolism?

Building up of body cells

107

What is catabolism?

Breaking down of body cells

108

What is the process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system called?

Absorption

109

What is absoption also known as

assimilation

110

Where does absorption occur?

Small intestine

111

What is villi?

Tiny hairlike projections that help increase the surface area of the small intestine, allowing more nutrients to be absorbed

112

Combining form for tuft of hair

Vill/i

113

What are the valleys that result from the projections of the small intestine?

Crypts

114

Where is food grasped and collected?

In the oral cavity

115

What is prehension?

Grasping food with lips or teeth

116

What is mastication?

Breaking food into smaller pieces (chewing)

117

What is deglutition?

Moving chewed food into the pharynx and then into the esophagus

118

What closes off the entrance to the trachea?

Epiglottis

119

What moves food down the esophagus?

Gravity and peristalsis

120

What is peristalsis

Series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscle

121

Combining form for contraction

-stalsis

122

How does food move through the small intestine?

Peristalsis and segmentation

123

What causes poop-shape

Segmentation involving side to side mixing of ingesta