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Ventral

Refers to the belly or underside of a body or body part

1

Ventr/o

Belly

2

Cranial

Toward the head

3

Crani/o

Skull

4

Anterior

Front of the body

5

Anteri/o

Before

6

Rostral

Nose end of the head

7

Rostrum

Beak

8

Cephalic

Pertaining to the head

9

Kephale

Head

10

Medial

Towards the midline

11

Medi/o

Middle

12

Superior

Uppermost, above, or toward the head

13

Proximal

Nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure

14

Superficial

Near the surface (also called external)

15

Palmar

Caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including carpus

16

Dorsal

Refers to the back

17

Dors/o

Back

18

Caudal

Toward the tail

19

Posterior

Rear of the body

20

Lateral

Away from the midline

21

Inferior

Lower most, below, or toward the tail

22

Distal

Farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure

23

Deep

Away from the surface (also called internal)

24

Plantar

Caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus

25

Midsagittal plane

The plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves
(Also called medial plane and midline)

26

Sagittal plane

The plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts

27

Dorsal plane

The plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts
(Also called frontal or coronal plane)

28

Transverse plane

The plane that divides the body into cranial and causal parts.
(Also called horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane)

29

-logy

Study of

30

Anatomy

Study of body structure

31

Physiology

Study of body functions

32

Pathology

Study of the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions

33

Pathophysiology

Study of changes in function caused by disease

34

Etiology

Study or disease causes

35

Buccal surface

Aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek (also called vestibular surface)

36

Occlusal surface

Aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew

37

Labial surface

Tooth surface facing the lips

38

Contact surfaces

Aspects of tooth that touch other teeth

39

Mesial

Surface closest to the midline of the dental arcade or arch

40

Distal

Contact surface furthest from the midline of dental arcade

41

Arcade

Used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth

42

Lingual surface

Aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue

43

Palatal surface

Tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue

44

Cavity

Hole or hollow space on the body that contains and protects internal organs

45

Cranial cavity

Hollow space that contains the brain in the skull

46

Spinal cavity

Hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column

47

Thoracic cavity

Hollow space that contains heart and lungs within the ribs between the neck and diaphragm (chest cavity)

48

Abdominal cavity

Hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity (Peritoneal cavity)

49

Pelvic cavity

Hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems (bladder and rectum) organs bounded by pelvic bones

50

Abdomen

Portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis containing the abdominal cavity

51

Thorax

Chest region located between the neck and diaphragm

52

Groin

Lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh (also known as inguinal area)

53

Membranes

Thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or an organ

54

Peritoneum

Membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some organs in this area

55

Parietal peritoneum

Outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities

56

Visceral peritoneum

Inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs

57

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

58

Umbilicus

Put in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus

59

Navel

Umbilicus

60

Mesentery

Layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity

61

Retroperitoneal

Superficial to the peritoneum

62

Recumbent

Lying down

63

Dorsal recumbency

Lying on the back

64

Ventral recumbency

Lying on the belly

65

Left lateral recumbency

Lying on the left side

66

Right lateral recumbency

Lying on the right side

67

Prone

Lying in ventral or sternal recumbency

68

Supine

Lying in dorsal recumbency

69

Adduction

Movement toward the midline

70

Abduction

Movement away from the midline

71

Flexion

Closure of a joint angle or reduction of the angle between two bones

72

Extension

Straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones

73

Hyperflexion

The palmar or plantar movement of the joint angles

74

Hyperextension

Dorsal movement of the joints beyond the reference angle

75

Supination

Act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward

76

Pronation

Act of rotating the body part or limb so that the palmar surface is turned downward

77

Rotation

Movement that means circular movement around an axis

78

Cyt/o

Combining form for cell

79

Cytology

Study of cells

80

Protoplasm

Cell membrane, cytoplasm, an nucleus

81

Cell membrane

Structure lining the cell that protects the cells contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell

82

Cytoplasm

Gelatinous material located in the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

83

Nucleus

Structure in a cell that contains nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and the surrounding membrane

84

Nucleoplasm

Material in the nucleus

85

Chromosomes

Structures in the nucleus composed of DNA

86

Genetic disorder

Any inherited disease or condition caused by the defective genes

87

Congenital

Denotes something that is present at birth

88

Anomaly

A deviation from what is regarded as normal

89

Tissue

A group of specialized cells that is similar in structure and function

90

Histology

The study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue

91

Hist/o

Combining form for tissue

92

Epithelial tissue

Covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells in a variety if arrangements (aka epithelium)

93

Endothelium

Cellular covering that forms the lining of the internal organs (including blood vessels)

94

Mesothelium

The cellular covering that forms the lining if serous membranes such as the peritoneum

95

Connective tissue

Adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together

96

Adipose tissue

Fat

97

Adip/o

Combing form for fat

98

Muscle tissue

Contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax

99

What are the three muscle types?

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

100

Nervous tissue

Contains cells with specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses

101

-plasia

Describes formation, development, and growth of tissue and cell numbers

102

-trophy

Formation, development, and increase in the size of tissue and cells

103

Anaplasia

Change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other

104

Aplasia

Lack of development if an organ or a tissue or a cell

105

Dysplasia

Abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell

106

Hyperplasia

Abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or a tissue or a cell

107

Hypoplasia

Incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or a cell

108

Neoplasia

Any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive

109

Tumor

Distinct mass of tissue

110

Benign

Not recurring

111

Malignant

Tending to spread and be life threatening

112

-oma

Tumor or neoplasm

113

Atrophy

Decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell

114

Dystrophy

Defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell

115

Hypertrophy

Increase in the size of an organ or tissue or cell

116

Glands

Groups of specialize cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body

117

Aden/o

Combing form for gland

118

Exocrine glands

Groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or to another organ

119

Endocrine glands

Groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body.

120

Organ

Part of the body that performs a special function or functions

121

Bicornuate uterus

A uterus with two horns

122

Unilateral

Pertaining to one side

123

Bilateral

Pertaining to two sides

124

Osteo/o

Bones

125

Oss/e

Bones
(Part of skeletal system)

126

Oss/i

Bones
Part of skeletal system

127

Arthr/o

Joints
Part of skeletal system

128

Chondr/o

Cartilage
Part of skeletal system

129

My/o

Muscles
Part of muscular system

130

Fasc/i

Fascia
Part I muscular system

131

Fasci/o

Fascia
Part of muscular system

132

Ten/o

Tendons
Part of muscular system

133

Tend/o

Tendons
Part of muscular system

134

Tendin/o

Tendons
Muscular system

135

Cardi/o

Heart
Part of cardiovascular system

136

Arteri/o

Arteries
Part of cardiovascular system

137

Ven/o

Veins
Part of cardiovascular system

138

Phleb/o

Veins
Part of the cardiovascular system

139

Hem/o

Blood
Part of cardiovascular system

140

Hemat/o

Blood
Part of cardiovascular system

141

Lymph/o

Lymph vessels, fluid, or nodes

Part of lymphatic and immune systems

142

Tonsill/o

Tonsils
Part of lymphatic and immune system

143

Splen/o

Spleen
Part of lymphatic and immune systems

144

Thym/o

Thymus
Part of lymphatic and immune systems

145

Nas/o

Nose or nares

146

Rhin/o

Nose or nares
Part of respiratory system

147

Pharyng/o

Pharynx
Part of respiratory system

148

Trache/o

Trachea
Part of respiratory system

149

Laryng/o

Larynx
Part of respiratory system

150

Pneum/o

Lungs
Part of respiratory system

151

Pneumon/o

Lungs
Part of respiratory system

152

Or/o

Mouth
Part of digestive system

153

Stomat/o

Mouth
Part of digestive system

154

Esophag/o

Esophagus
Part of digestive system

155

Gastr/o

Stomach
Part of digestive system

156

Enter/o

Small intestine
Part of digestive system

157

Col/o

Large intestine
Part of digestive system

158

Colon/o

Large intestine
Par of digestive system

159

Hepat/o

Liver
Part of digestive system

160

Pancreat/o

Pancreas
Part of digestive system

161

Ren/o

Kidneys
Part if urinary system

162

Nephr/o

Kidneys
Part of urinary system

163

Ureter/o

Ureters
Part of urinary system

164

Cyst/o

Urinary bladder
Part of urinary system

165

Urethr/o

Urethra
Part of urinary system

166

Neur/o

Nerves
Part of nervous and special senses system

167

Neur/i

Nerves
Part of nervous and special senses system

168

Encephal/o

Brain
Par of nervous and special senses

169

Myel/o

Spinal cord
Part of nervous and special senses

170

Ophthalm/o

Eyes
Nervous and special senses system

171

Ocul/o

Eyes
Part of nervous and special senses system

172

Opt/o

Eyes

173

Opt/i

Eyes
Part of nervous and special senses system

174

Optic/o

Sight
Part of nervous and special senses system

175

Ot/o

Ears
Part of nervous and special senses

176

Aur/i or aur/o

Ears
Part of nervous and special senses

177

Audit/o

Ears

178

Aud/i

Ears

179

Acoust/o

External ear/sound
Part of nervous system and special senses

180

Acous/o

External ear/ sound
Part of nervous and special senses system

181

Dermat/o

Skin
Part of integumentary system

182

Derm/o

Skin
Part of integumentary system

183

Cutane/o

Skin

184

Adren/o

Adrenals
Part of endocrine system

185

Gonad/o

Gonads
Part endocrine system

186

Pineal/o

Pineal
Part of the endocrine system

187

Pituit/o

Pituitary
Part of the endocrine system

188

Thyroid/o

Thyroid
Part of the endocrine system

189

Thyr/o

Thyroid
Part of endocrine system

190

Orch/o

Testes
Part of reproductive system

191

Orchi/o

Testes

192

Orchid/o

Testes

193

Testicul/o

Testes

194

Ovari/o

Ovaries
Part of reproductive system

195

Oophor/o

Ovaries

196

Hyster/o

Uterus
Part of reproductive system

197

Metr/o or metr/i

Uterus

198

Metri/o

Uterus

199

Uter/o

Uterus

200

1

Latin: uni-
Greek: mono-

201

2

Latin: duo-, bi-
Greek; dyo-

202

3

Latin: tri-
Greek: tri-

203

4

Latin: quadri- or quadro-
Greek: tetr- or tetra-

204

5

Latin: quinqu- or quint-
Greek: pent- or pentra-

205

6

Latin: sex-
Greek: hex- or hexa-

206

7

Latin: sept- or septi-
Greek: hept- or hepta-

207

8

Latin: octo-
Greek: oct-, octa-, or octo-

208

9

Latin: novem- or nonus-
Greek: emnea-

209

10

Latin: deca- or decem-
Greek: dek- or deka-