Chapter 7 Principles of Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Principles of Pharmacology Deck (149):
1

Breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route

inhalation

2

Into the bone; a medication delivery route

intraosseous (IO)

3

Medications that enter the body through the digestive system.

enteral medications

4

Injection into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route

subcutaneous (SC) injection

5

The original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized.

generic name

6

A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication.

nitrogylcerin

7

Medication that are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician's order.

prescription medications

8

A gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without it.

oxygen

9

A simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit.

oral glucose

10

By mouth; a medication delivery route.

oral

11

An injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route.

intravenous (IV) injection

12

A mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve.

suspension

13

A delivery route in which a medication is pushed through a specialized atomizer device called a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) into the naris.

intranasal (IN)

14

A substance produced by the body (commonly called adrenaline), and a drug produced by pharmaceutical companies that increases pulse rate and blood pressure; the drug of choice for an anaphylactic reaction.

epinephrine

15

The process by which medication works on the body.

pharmacodynamics

16

A liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand.

solution

17

When the EMT assists the patient with the administration of his or her own medication.

patient-assisted medication

18

Actions that are undesirable but pose little risk to the patient.

unintended effects

19

Actions that can be harmful to the patient.

untoward effects

20

Under the tongue; a medication delivery route.

sublingual (SL)

21

The process of binding or sticking to a surface.

adsorption

22

A medication that binds to a receptor and blocks other medications.

antagonist

23

An injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route.

intramuscular (IM) injection

24

A miniature spray canister used to direct medications through the mouth and into the lungs.

metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

25

A medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping).

aspirin (acetylsalicyclic acid or ASA)

26

Through the rectum; a medication delivery route.

per rectum (PR)

27

The therapeutic uses for a specific medication.

indications

28

Through the skin; a medication delivery route.

transcutaneous (transdermal)

29

The amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and age.

dose

30

Conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate; for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient.

contraindications

31

When the EMT administers medication to him or herself or to a partner.

peer-assisted medication

32

Lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route.

topical medications

33

Through the mouth; a medication delivery route.

per os (PO)

34

A medication that causes stimulation of receptors.

agonist

35

Medications that may be purchased by a patient without a prescription.

over-the-counter (OTC) medications

36

A chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain.

medication

37

A semiliquid substance that is administered orally in a capsule form or through plastic tubes.

gel

38

The process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream.

absorption

39

The study of the properties and effects of medications.

pharmacology

40

Any effects of medication other than the desired ones.

side effects

41

The effect that a medication is expected to have on the body.

intended effect

42

A condition characterized by a low blood glucose level

hypoglycemia

43

Medications that enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, skin, or mucous membranes.

parenteral medications

44

A device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and push it into a nostril.

mucosal atomizer device (MAD)

45

The therapeutic effect of medication on the body.

action

46

When the EMT directly administers the medication to the patient.

EMT-administered medication

47

An oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. It is carried on the EMS unit.

activated charcoal

48

The simultaneous use of multiple medications as typically seen in elderly people.

polypharmacy

49

The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.

trade name

50

Activated Charcoal: Administration

EMT-administered

51

Activated Charcoal: Indications

oral ingestion of toxic substances

52

Activated Charcoal: Contraindications

ingestion of caustics or hydrocarbons, decreased LOC, unstable airway

53

Activated Charcoal: Side Effects

Nausea & Vomiting, Dark tarry stool

54

Activated Charcoal: Action

Adsorbs toxic substances in the digestive tract

55

Activated Charcoal: Route

PO (by mouth)

56

Activated Charcoal: Adult dose

1 gram per kilogram (1g/kg)

57

Nitroglycerin: Administration

patient-assisted

58

Nitroglycerin: Action

dilates blood vessels

59

Nitroglycerin: Indications

chest pain due to myocardial infarction or angina

60

Nitroglycerin: Contraindications

hypotension, drugs taken for erectile dysfunction within the last 24 hours

61

Nitroglycerin: Routes

sublingual: spray or tablet

62

Nitroglycerin: Side Effects

headache, burning under tongue, hypotension, nausea

63

Nitroglycerin: Dose

.4 mg tablet or spray (x3)

64

Oral Glucose: Administration

EMT-administered

65

Oral Glucose: Action

provides glucose for the cells

66

Oral Glucose: Indications

low blood glucose (hypoglycemia)

67

Oral Glucose: Contraindications

decreases level of consciousness, nausea & vomiting

68

Oral Glucose: Routes

PO (buccal)

69

Oral Glucose: Side Effects

nausea & vomiting

70

Oral Glucose: Dose

½ to 1 tube

71

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Administration

EMT administered

72

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Trade Name

Bayer

73

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Action

prevents platelets from clumping, thereby decreasing formation of new clots. anti pyretic and anti-inflammatory.

74

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Indications

chest pain when considering myocardial infarction

75

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Contraindications

hypersensitivity, bleeding disorders

76

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Routes

PO (by mouth)

77

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Side Effects

nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, bleeding, allergic reactions

78

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin): Adult Dose

160-354 mg (2-4 81mg chewable tablets)

79

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Administration

EMT-administered

80

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Actions

stimulates nervous system, causing bronchodilation and vasoconstriction

81

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Indications

severe allergic reaction

82

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Contraindications

myocardial infarction, hypothermia, hypertension

83

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Route

Intramuscular (auto-injector)

84

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Side Effects

hypertension, tachycardia, anxiety, restlessness

85

Epinephrine (Epi-Pen): Adult Dose

1 auto-injector (Adult .30mg, Child .15mg)

86

Oxygen: Administration

EMT-administered

87

Oxygen: Action

reverses hypoxia, provides oxygen to be absorbed by lungs

88

Oxygen: Indications

hypoxia or suspected hypoxia

89

Oxygen: Contraindications

very rarely in patient with COPD. No open flames

90

Oxygen: Route

gas, inhalation

91

Oxygen: Side Effects

decreased respiratory effort in rare COPD patient

92

Oxygen: Adult Dose

via NRB: 10-15 Lpm; via BVM: 15 Lpm; via Nasal; 2-6 Lpm

93

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Trade names

Proventil, Ventolin, Albuterol

94

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Administration

patient-assisted

95

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Actions

stimulates nervous system, causing bronchodilation

96

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Indications

asthma/difficulty breathing with wheezing

97

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Contraindications

hypersensitivity, tachycardia, myocardial infarction

98

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Route

inhalation

99

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Side Effects

hypertension, tachycardia, anxiety, restlessness

100

Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI): Adult Dose

1-2 inhalations. wait 5 minutes before repeating dose

101

Define: absorption

The process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream.

102

Define: action

The therapeutic effect of a medication on the body.

103

Define: activated charcoal

An oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. Charcoal is ground into a very fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area for binding medications that have been taken by mouth; it is carried on the EMS unit.

104

Define: adsorption

The process of binding or sticking to a surface.

105

Define: agonist

A medication that causes stimulation of receptors.

106

Define: antagonist

A medication that binds to a receptor and blocks other medications.

107

Define: aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid or ASA)

A medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and potent inhibitor or platelet aggregation (clumping).

108

Define: contraindications

Conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate, for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient.

109

Define: dose

The amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and age.

110

Define: EMT-administered medication

When the EMT directly administers the medication to the patient.

111

Define: enteral medications

Medications that enter the body through the digestive system.

112

Define: epinephrine

A medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication.

113

Define: gel

A semiliquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes.

114

Define: generic name

The original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized.

115

Define: hypoglycemia

An abnormally low blood glucose level.

116

Define: indications

The therapeutic uses for a specific medication.

117

Define: inhalation

Breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route.

118

Define: intended effect

The effect that a medication is expected to have on the body.

119

Define: intramuscular (IM) injection

An injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route.

120

Define: intranasal (IN)

A delivery route in which a medication is pushed through a specialized atomizer device called a mucosal atomizer device (MAD) into the nare.

121

Define: intraosseous (IO)

Into the bone; a medication delivery route.

122

Define: intravenous (IV) injection

An injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route.

123

Define: medication

A chemical substance that is used to treat or prevent disease or relieve pain.

124

Define: metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

A miniature spray canister through which droplets or particles of medication may be inhaled.

125

Define: mucosal atomizer device (MAD)

A device that is used to change a liquid medication into a spray and pushes it into a nostril.

126

Define: nitrogylcerin

A medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication.

127

Define: oral

By mouth; a medication delivery route

128

Define: oral glucose

A simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit.

129

Define: over-the-counter (OTC) medications

Medications that may be purchased directly by a patient without a prescription.

130

Define: oxygen

A gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without oxygen.

131

Define: parenteral medications

Medications that enter the body by a route other than the digestive tract, skin, or mucous membranes.

132

Define: patient-assisted medication

When the EMT assists the patient with the administration of his or her own medication.

133

Define: peer-assisted medication

When the EMT administers medication to him or herself or to a partner.

134

Define: per os (PO)

Through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral.

135

Define: per rectum (PR)

Through the rectum; a medication delivery route.

136

Define: pharmacodynamics

The process by which a medication works on the body.

137

Define: pharmacology

The study of the properties and effects of medications.

138

Define: polypharmacy

The use of multiple medications on a regular basis.

139

Define: prescription medications

Medications that are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician's order.

140

Define: side effects

Any effects of a medication other than the desired ones.

141

Define: solution

A liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand.

142

Define: subcutaneous (SC) injection

Injection into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route.

143

Define: sublingual (SL)

Under the tongue; a medication delivery route.

144

Define: suspension

A mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve.

145

Define: topical medications

Lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surace of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route.

146

Define: trade name

The brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized.

147

Define: transcutaneous (transdermal)

Through the skin; a medication delivery route.

148

Define: unintended effect

Actions that are undesirable but pose little risk to the patient.

149

Define: untoward effects

Actions that can be harmful to the patient.