Chapter 12 Medical Overview Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Medical Overview Deck (40):
1

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord; it is usually caused by a virus or bacterium

meningitis

2

The general type of illness a patient is experiencing.

nature of illness (NOI)

3

Awareness that unseen life-threatening injuries may exist when determining the mechanism of injury.

index of suspicion

4

Emergencies that are the result of physical forces applied to a patient's body.

trauma emergencies

5

Potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flulike symptoms.

severe acute respiratory syndroms (SARS)

6

Virus caused by human herpesviruses 1 and 2, characterized by small blisters whose location depends on the type of virus. Type 2 results in blisters on the genital area, while type 1 results in blisters in nongenital areas.

herpes simplex virus

7

The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.

virulence

8

A chronic bacterial disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organs such as the brains and kidneys.

tuberculosis (TB)

9

Emergencies that require EMS attention because of illnesses or conditions not caused by an outside force.

medical emergencies

10

A bacterium that causes infection in different parts of the body and is often resistant to commonly used antibiotics; can be found on the skin, in surgical wounds, in the bloodstream, lungs, and urinary tract.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

11

The virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

HIV

12

How is HIV transmitted?

Only when deposited on a mucous membrane or directly into the bloodstream. E.g., via sexual contact or exposure to blood or body fluids.

13

The initial infection with this disease produces a lesion called a chancre. Chancres are most commonly located in the genital region.

Syphilis

14

How is syphilis transmitted?

Sexual contact, blood-to-blood contact

15

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

16

How is hepatitis A transmitted?

Fecal-oral, infected food or drink

17

How is hepatitis B transmitted?

Blood, sexual contact, saliva, urine, breast milk

18

How is hepatitis C transmitted?

Blood, sexual contact

19

How is hepatitis D transmitted?

Blood, sexual contact

20

How is toxin-induced Hepatitis transmitted?

Inhalation, skin or mucous membrane exposure, oral ingestion, or intravenous administration

21

What type of hepatitis is not contagious?

toxin-induced hepatitis

22

Early signs of viral hepatitis?

Loss of appetite, vomiting, fever, fatigue, sore throat, cough, and muscle and joint pain.

23

Later signs of viral hepatitis?

Jaundice and RUQ pain

24

Can be transmitted only from a patient who has an acute infection.

Hepatitis A

25

Can be transmitted from long-term carriers who have no signs of illness.

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C

26

For which type(s) of hepatitis is there a vaccine available?

Hepatitis A and hepatitis B

27

For which type(s) of hepatitis is no vaccine available?

Hepatitis C and hepatitis D

28

For which type(s) of hepatitis is no treatment available?

Hepatitis A and hepatitis D

29

For which type(s) of hepatitis is a minimally effective treatment available?

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C

30

Signs and symptoms of meningitis?

Fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status

31

What personal protective equipment is effective in preventing contraction of meningitis?

gloves and a mask to prevent the patient's secretions from getting into your nose and mouth

32

How is respiratory tuberculosis transmitted?

airborne transmission

33

What PPE is required to prevent contamination of respiratory tuberculosis?

HEPA mask

34

An airborne disease caused by bacteria that mostly affects children younger than 6 years.

Whooping cough

35

Signs and symptoms of whooping cough?

Fever and a "whoop" sound that occurs when the patient tries to inhale after a coughing attack.

36

The best way to prevent exposure to whooping cough.

Place a mask on the patient and on yourself.

37

Signs and symptoms of MRSA?

Localized skin abscesses, and sepsis in older patients.

38

How is MRSA transmitted in health care settings?

Patient to patient via unwashed hands of health care providers.

39

How is hantavirus transmitted?

Through rodent urine and droppings

40

How is West Nile Virus transmitted?

Mosquito