Chapter 8: Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Deck (67):
1

valence electrons have the highest .... in an atom, or occupy an .... from a ...

principal quantum number; unfilled subshell; lower shell

2

electrons in filled subshells that have lower principal quantum numbers are called

core electrons

3

the orbitals in which the valence electrons reside are called the

valence orbitals

4

valence orbitals include the orbitals of the ...., and, if an atom has d or f electrons, the orbitals of any ...

highest principal quantum number; partially-filled subshells of lower principal quantum number

5

the periodic table can be divided into four blocks of elements: elements with highest energy electrons in

s,p,d, or f subshells

6

the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table correlates with the

subhsells that hold the electrons in the atom

7

the period number is the same as the ...

principal quantum number of the outermost electron

8

elements that have one electron in a new principal shell in the energy level diagram start a

new period on the periodic table

9

the 4s subhsell is lower in energy than the

3d subshell

10

the two columns on the left are the ... elements, that is, elements for which the highest energy electrons occupy an .. subshell

s-block; s

11

the six columns on the right are .. elements, the 10 columns in the middle are ... elements, and the ... elements are at the bottom

p-block; d-block; f-block

12

the ...is the value of n for the s or p subshells, the ... is the value of n for the d subshells, and the ... is the value of n for the f subshell

period number; period number-1; period number-2

13

for ions, electrons of ... are removed first. for subshells of the same n level, electrons are removed from the ...

highest n value; subshell of highest l value first

14

for d-block transition elements, the ...electrons are lost before the ... electrons

ns; (n-1)d

15

anions are formed b the addition of

electrons to valence orbitals

16

cations are formed by the loss of ... from the orbitals with the

valence electrons; greatest n values

17

an isolectronic species is a group of atoms and ions that contain the

same number of electrons

18

the species in an isoelectronic series have the same

electron configuration

19

an atomic radius is half the distance between

adjacent atoms of the same element in a molecule

20

the ionic radius is the measure of the

size of an ion in an ionic solid

21

an atom is always ... than any of its cations

larger

22

the greater the positive charge on the cation of the same element, the ... the ionic radius

smaller

23

anions are always ... than the neutral atoms

larger

24

because each member of an isoelectronic series has the same number of electrons, the .... determines the size within the series

number of protons in the nucleus

25

increasing the nuclear charge increases the electrostatic attractions that the nucleus exerts on the electrons, causing the

radius of the species to decrease

26

in an isoelectronic series, the species with the largest number of protons in its nucleus has the

smallest radius

27

the radii of atoms ... down any group because of the increase in the ...

increase; principal quantum number of the valence orbitals

28

the size trends of atoms in any given period are determined by the

attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons

29

the effective nuclear charge, Zeff, is the .... experienced by electrons in a subshell

net positive charge

30

the larger effective nuclear charges increases the

electrostatic attraction of the nucleus for the outermost electrons

31

the radii of atoms ... across a period because of the ...

decrease; increase in effective nuclear charge

32

elements at the bottom left of the table have the ... radii, and those in the upper right are ...

largest; smallest

33

the (n-1)d electrons shield the ns electrons from the additional charge that is added to the nucleus with each additional electron, so the effective nuclear charge on the outer ns electrons

increases only slowly

34

ionization energy is the energy required to ...electrons that are attracted by a large effective nuclear charge, f

remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion in its electronic ground state.

35

the energy needed to remove the first electron is the ... (...), that needed to remove the second electron is the ...(..), and so forth

first ionization energy (I1); second ionization energy (I2)

36

ionization energies are deterined by the strength of the

interaction between the nucleus and the valence electrons

37

electrons that are atracted by a large effective nuclear charge are ... to remove, whereas weakly attracted electrons are ..

difficult; easily removed

38

ionization energies ... across rows in a period because of the ...

increase; increase in effective nuclear charge

39

the ionization energies are more sensitive than the radii to changes in the

occupied subshells

40

slight breaks in the increasing ionization energies across a period are observed at ..., where electrons first ..., and at ..., where electrons are first ...

group 3; enter the p subshell; group 6; paired in the p subshell

41

(group 3)the slight decrease in the ionization energy trend is explained by the smaller ... of the inner electrons by an np1 electron in comparison with s^2 electrons

penetration

42

(group 6) two electrons in the same p orbital repel each other more considerably than two electrons in different p orbitals, causing a

decrease in the ionization energy

43

in general, ionization energies ... down a group, principally because of...

decrease; size considerations

44

the valence electrons of the heavier elements are ..., so electrostatic attractions are ...

farther from the nucleus; weaker

45

the decrease in ionization energies is not as great as one would expect because the effective nuclear charge that attracts the valence electrons increases from the top to the bottom of the group, partially

canceling the effect

46

the differences between ionization energies of the transition metals in any period are

small

47

the species with the greatest charge in the nucleus fror isoelectronic series has the

greatest ionization energy

48

valence electrons are ... than core electrons

much easier to remove

49

pseudo-noble-gas electron configuration →

[noble gas](n-1)d^10

50

in general, the lowest possible charge found on a transition metal occurs when the ..., leadig to cations with a ...

ns electrons are removed; 2+ charge

51

representative-element metals can lose electrons until the cations attain a

noble-gas or a pseudo-noble-gas electron configuration.

52

electron affinity: energ change when an electron is

added to a gaseous atom to form an anion

53

the eleements with the highest (most favorable) electron affinities are the

group 17 elements

54

group 17 elements have the highest .. in their period and a vacancy in the ... to hold an additional electron and complete a ..

effective nuclear charges; valence p orbitals; valence shell octet

55

.... has oe of the largest electron affinities of all the elements

fluorine

56

electron affinities are generally most favorable for eleents with

high ionization energies

57

because the single electron in the s valence orbital is easily removed for group 1 metals, these elements are

highly reactive

58

each of the alkali metals mits light of a ... whenthe metal or a compound containing the metal is ..., a procedure called a ...

characteristic color; placed in a flame; flame test

59

flame tests are used to determine which elements are present in sampes of ..., ad the intensity of the colors is used to determine the ...

unknown composition (qualtitative analysis); amounts of the elements in the samples (quantitive analysis)

60

in superoxide, oxygen has an oxidation number of

-1/2

61

the reactivity of the group 1 metals .... down the group. their chemistry dis dominated by the formation of ... ions

increases; M+

62

the alkaline earth metals are reactive, but not as reactive as the alkali metals, because group 2 has greater

ionization energies

63

most reactions of group 2 elements leads to the formation of ionic compound in which the two

valence electrons are removed

64

the reactivity of group 2 metlas ... down the group

increases

65

the reactivity of the haogens .. down the grouop. their chemistry is dominated by the formation of ... ions

decreases; X-

66

interhalogens: compounds formed from

two different halogens

67

most of the interhalogens have the general formula ..., where X is one of the .... and n=...

XFn; heavier halogens; 1,3,5