Flashcards in Chapter 8: Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Deck (67):
valence electrons have the highest .... in an atom, or occupy an .... from a ...
principal quantum number; unfilled subshell; lower shell
electrons in filled subshells that have lower principal quantum numbers are called
the orbitals in which the valence electrons reside are called the
valence orbitals include the orbitals of the ...., and, if an atom has d or f electrons, the orbitals of any ...
highest principal quantum number; partially-filled subshells of lower principal quantum number
the periodic table can be divided into four blocks of elements: elements with highest energy electrons in
s,p,d, or f subshells
the arrangement of the elements in the periodic table correlates with the
subhsells that hold the electrons in the atom
the period number is the same as the ...
principal quantum number of the outermost electron
elements that have one electron in a new principal shell in the energy level diagram start a
new period on the periodic table
the 4s subhsell is lower in energy than the
the two columns on the left are the ... elements, that is, elements for which the highest energy electrons occupy an .. subshell
the six columns on the right are .. elements, the 10 columns in the middle are ... elements, and the ... elements are at the bottom
p-block; d-block; f-block
the ...is the value of n for the s or p subshells, the ... is the value of n for the d subshells, and the ... is the value of n for the f subshell
period number; period number-1; period number-2
for ions, electrons of ... are removed first. for subshells of the same n level, electrons are removed from the ...
highest n value; subshell of highest l value first
for d-block transition elements, the ...electrons are lost before the ... electrons
anions are formed b the addition of
electrons to valence orbitals
cations are formed by the loss of ... from the orbitals with the
valence electrons; greatest n values
an isolectronic species is a group of atoms and ions that contain the
same number of electrons
the species in an isoelectronic series have the same
an atomic radius is half the distance between
adjacent atoms of the same element in a molecule
the ionic radius is the measure of the
size of an ion in an ionic solid
an atom is always ... than any of its cations
the greater the positive charge on the cation of the same element, the ... the ionic radius
anions are always ... than the neutral atoms
because each member of an isoelectronic series has the same number of electrons, the .... determines the size within the series
number of protons in the nucleus
increasing the nuclear charge increases the electrostatic attractions that the nucleus exerts on the electrons, causing the
radius of the species to decrease
in an isoelectronic series, the species with the largest number of protons in its nucleus has the
the radii of atoms ... down any group because of the increase in the ...
increase; principal quantum number of the valence orbitals
the size trends of atoms in any given period are determined by the
attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons
the effective nuclear charge, Zeff, is the .... experienced by electrons in a subshell
net positive charge
the larger effective nuclear charges increases the
electrostatic attraction of the nucleus for the outermost electrons
the radii of atoms ... across a period because of the ...
decrease; increase in effective nuclear charge
elements at the bottom left of the table have the ... radii, and those in the upper right are ...
the (n-1)d electrons shield the ns electrons from the additional charge that is added to the nucleus with each additional electron, so the effective nuclear charge on the outer ns electrons
increases only slowly
ionization energy is the energy required to ...electrons that are attracted by a large effective nuclear charge, f
remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion in its electronic ground state.
the energy needed to remove the first electron is the ... (...), that needed to remove the second electron is the ...(..), and so forth
first ionization energy (I1); second ionization energy (I2)
ionization energies are deterined by the strength of the
interaction between the nucleus and the valence electrons
electrons that are atracted by a large effective nuclear charge are ... to remove, whereas weakly attracted electrons are ..
difficult; easily removed
ionization energies ... across rows in a period because of the ...
increase; increase in effective nuclear charge
the ionization energies are more sensitive than the radii to changes in the
slight breaks in the increasing ionization energies across a period are observed at ..., where electrons first ..., and at ..., where electrons are first ...
group 3; enter the p subshell; group 6; paired in the p subshell
(group 3)the slight decrease in the ionization energy trend is explained by the smaller ... of the inner electrons by an np1 electron in comparison with s^2 electrons
(group 6) two electrons in the same p orbital repel each other more considerably than two electrons in different p orbitals, causing a
decrease in the ionization energy
in general, ionization energies ... down a group, principally because of...
decrease; size considerations
the valence electrons of the heavier elements are ..., so electrostatic attractions are ...
farther from the nucleus; weaker
the decrease in ionization energies is not as great as one would expect because the effective nuclear charge that attracts the valence electrons increases from the top to the bottom of the group, partially
canceling the effect
the differences between ionization energies of the transition metals in any period are
the species with the greatest charge in the nucleus fror isoelectronic series has the
greatest ionization energy
valence electrons are ... than core electrons
much easier to remove
pseudo-noble-gas electron configuration →
in general, the lowest possible charge found on a transition metal occurs when the ..., leadig to cations with a ...
ns electrons are removed; 2+ charge
representative-element metals can lose electrons until the cations attain a
noble-gas or a pseudo-noble-gas electron configuration.
electron affinity: energ change when an electron is
added to a gaseous atom to form an anion
the eleements with the highest (most favorable) electron affinities are the
group 17 elements
group 17 elements have the highest .. in their period and a vacancy in the ... to hold an additional electron and complete a ..
effective nuclear charges; valence p orbitals; valence shell octet
.... has oe of the largest electron affinities of all the elements
electron affinities are generally most favorable for eleents with
high ionization energies
because the single electron in the s valence orbital is easily removed for group 1 metals, these elements are
each of the alkali metals mits light of a ... whenthe metal or a compound containing the metal is ..., a procedure called a ...
characteristic color; placed in a flame; flame test
flame tests are used to determine which elements are present in sampes of ..., ad the intensity of the colors is used to determine the ...
unknown composition (qualtitative analysis); amounts of the elements in the samples (quantitive analysis)
in superoxide, oxygen has an oxidation number of
the reactivity of the group 1 metals .... down the group. their chemistry dis dominated by the formation of ... ions
the alkaline earth metals are reactive, but not as reactive as the alkali metals, because group 2 has greater
most reactions of group 2 elements leads to the formation of ionic compound in which the two
valence electrons are removed
the reactivity of group 2 metlas ... down the group
the reactivity of the haogens .. down the grouop. their chemistry is dominated by the formation of ... ions
interhalogens: compounds formed from
two different halogens