Chapter 8 - The skeletal system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - The skeletal system Deck (27)
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1

Skeleton

The skeleton is the framework that gives the body its shape

2

Functions

The skeleton has a number of important functions, these include

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List Functions

Support, Protection, Movement, Mineral Storage and Production of blood cells

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Good Way To Remember Functions

SPMMP

5

Support

It gives the body shape and supports the soft tissues of the body, some of which are attached to the skeleton, e.g. muscles, tendons.

6

Protection

Some skeletal bones provide protection to the internal organs by enclosing them and protecting them from injury, e.g. the ribcage protects the heart and lungs, the skull protects the brain and the vertebrae protect the spinal cord.

7

Movement

Muscles are attached to bones, so when they contract they cause bones to move

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Mineral Storage

Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are stored in bone. They can be released into the bloodstream when needed.

9

Production of blood cells

Red blood cells are produced in bone marrow

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Structure of bone (5)

Joint, Cartilage, Spongy Bone, Medullary Cavity, Compact bone

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Good Way to Rememember Bone Structure

JCCSM

12

Composition of bone

Both Organic and Inorganic

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One of Main organic components (bone)

Collagen

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Collagen

A form of protein that is mainly found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage in addition to bone.

15

Collegen (plants)

Not found in plants

16

Inorganic component (bone)

Consists of bone minerals such as calcium (Ca)

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Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue in the animal's body has a number of functions

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Connective Tissue Provides

Connective Tissue Provides support and protection, stores fat, forms blood cells and binds structures together

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Connective tissue types (in mammalian body)

Loose Connective Tissue, Fribrous connective tissue and muscular tissue.

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Adipose Tissue

A loose type of connective tissue. Its main function is to store fat. It is also used for insulation. It is found beneath the skin and around internal organs such as the kidneys

21

Tendons

Connect muscle to bone. They are inelastic fibres consisting of collagen. Due to the attachment of a muscle to a bone via a tendon, when a muscle contracts the bone moves with it.

22

Ligaments

Another connective tissue consisting of fibres of collagen. Ligaments connect two bones together at a joint. They are slightly elastic, allowing the joints to move, while at the same time controlling the range of movement of the joints.

23

Muscle

Acoounts for approximately 40% of the body's total weight. When muscles contract (or shorten), they cause movement in the body. Some muscle, known as skeletal muscle, is attached to bone.

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Muscle Types

There are three muscle types in the body: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.Each has its own characteristic, location and function.

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Skeletal muscle

This type of muscle is attached to the bones of the skeleton. It is also found in the diaphragm and between the ribs. It is a voluntary muscle that is under conscious control, i.e. it does not move of its own accord. One of its main functions is for movement and breathing. In the mammalian body, skeletal muscle assists the movement of the legs.

26

Smooth Muscle

This type of muscle is found in the internal organs, such as the digestive system, the blood vessels and the reproductive system. It is an involuntary muscle that moves independantly. Some of its functions include the movement of food through the alimentary canal (oesophagus), which is known as peristalisis, and dilation of the cervix during birth.

27

Cardiac muscle

This type of muscle is only found in the heart. It is an involuntary muscle that does not fatigue and is responsible for pumping blood around the body in the circulatory system.