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Flashcards in chapter 8 world history Deck (87):
0

Peninsulares

Born in Spain, only ones who could hold high office, 1

1

Creoles

Spaniards born in Latin America, officers in the army, 2

2

Mestizos

Mixed European and indian, 3

3

Mulattos

Mixed Europeans and Africans, 4

4

Enslaved Indians

Bottom of social ladder

5

What did Saint Domingue become

Haiti

6

Who led the slave revolt in Haiti?

L'Ouverture

7

What did the French do to L'Ouverture

Send him to prison in the French alps

8

Who were the best educated in Latin America

Creoles

9

What ideas did Creoles use to call for revolution

Enlightenment

10

Fought for Venezuela's independence

Bolivar

11

Was exiled twice

Bolivar

12

Fought to free Chile

San Martin

13

Fought with San Martin

O'higgins

14

Called peasants to revolt in Mexico

Hidalgo

15

Led Mexican peasant rebel forces

Morelos

16

Who defeated Mexican peasant rebels

Iturbide

17

What happened when Napoleon invaded Portugal

The royals fled to brazil

18

What made the king sign brazil independence

A petition from the brazilians

19

What was significant about the Brazilian revolution

It was a bloodless revolution

20

Conservatives

Wealthy property owners/nobles, wanted monarchy

21

Liberal

Middle class, elected parliaments, only educated and landowners vote

22

Radical

Democracy

23

Nationalism

Loyalty to common culture and history

24

Nation-states

Country with independent government

25

Nationstates examples in Europe:

France, great Britain. Spain

26

What did the ottomans control

Most of the Balkans

27

Why did Greek have so much support

Everyone respected Greek culture

28

Who defeated the ottomans

Britain, france, Russia

29

What was the battle that freed the Greece called

Battle of Navarino

30

1830's uprisings. 1848 revolutions

Ethnic uprisings and revolutions in Europe, all failed

31

What king Charles' X did to get kicked out

Tried to return france to an absolute monarchy

32

Who replaced King Charles X

Louis-Phillipe

33

Replaced Louis-Phillipe

A republic

34

What did france do after the republic fell

Create a moderate constitution

35

Improvements Napoleon III made

Built railroads, industrialized, created public works, decreased unemployment and made life in France better

36

Why did Czar Nicholas I lose the Crimean war

Industries and transportation systems failed to supply troops

37

Who modernized Russia

Czar Alexander II

38

Who freed Russia's serfs

Czar Alexander II

39

Agreement peasants made to get freedom

Half land to peasants, half to nobles, peasant communities had 49 years to pay government for the land

40

How did Alexander II die

He was assainated

41

Led Russia's industrial revolution

Czar Alexander III

42

Force of nationalism

Unity or disrupt empires

43

Ruled both halves of the Austria-Hungary empire

Emperor Francis Joseph

44

Russification

Forced Russian culture on all ethnic groups in Russia

45

What was the ultimate affect of Russification

It destabilized Russia

46

Why did the ottomans grant equal citizenship to everyone

Great Britain and france pressured them.

47

Ruler of piedmont - Sardinia

King victor Emmanuel II

48

Piedmont-Sardinia prime minister

Count Cavour

49

How did Cavour get control of northern Italy

Allied with France and fought Austria

50

Took control of southern Italy

Garibaldi and the red shirts

51

Last victory for Piedmont-Sardinia

Papal states

52

What did the pope keep control of

The Vatican City

53

Austrian land that piedmont sardinia needed

Venetia

54

Advantages Prussia had that made it possible for them to lead German unification

String nationalism, liberal constitution

55

Leader of Prussia

King Wilhelm I

56

Prime minister of Prussia

Bismarck

57

Bismarcks political style

Realpolitik

58

Realpolitiks

Politics of reality

59

How did bismarck handle parliament

Declared he would rule without consent of parliament or legal budget

60

Who did Prussia ally with to fight Denmark

Austria

61

What providence did Prussia get after Denmark war

Schleswig

62

Providence Austria got after Denmark war

Holstein

63

Border war Prussia purposely started with Austria

Seven weeks war

64

What happened to Austria after Seven Weeks War

Lost Venetia, embarrassed

65

What Prussia gained after seven weeks war

Control of north Germany

66

Bismarck was an expert at:

Manufacturing incidents

67

Caused southern Germany to join Prussia

Prussia winning the Franco-Prussian war

68

What title did King Wilhelm I give himself

Kaiser (emperor)

69

What did Wilhelm call the new German confederation

The Second Reich

70

Most powerful countries in Europe

Britain and Germany (militarily and economically)

71

Ideas of romanticism

Glorified heroes/heroic actions

72

Brothers Grimm

Created book of German fairy tales and a dictionary/grammar book

73

Hugo

Wrote Les Misérables

74

Mary Shelley

Wrote Frankenstein

75

Characterstics of gothic novels

Medieval castles, supernatural events

76

Famous composers

Liszt, Beethoven, chopin

77

Wrote the Ninth Symphony

Beethoven

78

Realism

Showed life as it was not as it should be

79

Daguerreotypes

First photos

80

Created light sensitive paper

Talbot

81

Exposed misery of French workers

Zola

82

Wrote A Tale of Two Cities

Dickens

83

Where did realism movement start

Paris

84

Impressionism

Show impression of a subject or a moment in time

85

What did impressionist show

Positive view of society

86

Impressionist leaders

Money, Degas, Renoir