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Flashcards in Harrison's Ch. 6 Test Deck (75):
0

What Theory did Aristotle have?

Geocentric theory

1

What was the midievil view or geocentric theory

Earth is the center of the universe and the planets revolve around it in perfect circles.

2

What caused the Scientific Revolution?

People questioned the Geocentric theory

3

Before the scientific revolution where did people get their information

Looked to the Greeks, Romans, and the bible.

4

What theory did Copernicus have after 25 years of research?

Heliocentric theory

5

What is the heliocentric theory

Sun center of the universe and planets have an elliptical orbit

6

What book did Copernicus write

On the revolution of heavenly bodies

7

Who continued Copernicus' work?

Brahe

8

How did Brahe continue Copernicus' work?

By tracking heavenly bodies

9

Who was Brahes assistant and what did he do?

Kepler and he continued work on elliptical orbits

10

The scientific revolution was

Based in careful observation and questioning belief

11

What did Galileo do? (5)

Built telescope, learned surfaces are not smooth, wrote Starry Messenger, said sun had dark spots, Jupiter has 4 moons.

12

Explain the battle between the Catholic Church and Galileo

Church warned
Shut mouth
Dialogue of the two Cheif systems
Trial
Denounced discoveries

13

What is the scientific method?

Procedure for gathering and testing ideas

14

Which two people helped advance it?

Descartes and Bacon

15

Bacon -

Encouraged others to experiment with their own conclusions

16

Descartes -

Analytical Geometry

17

Newton -

Law of gravity (everything attracts)

18

Torricelli -

Mercury barometer

19

Janssen-

Microscope

20

Fahrenheit

Thermometer

21

Celsius

Thermometer

22

Leeuwenhoek

Saw bacteria & blood cells

23

Vesalius

Dissected body and provided detailed information about organs, bones, muscles

24

Jenner

Smallpox vaccine from cowpox

25

Boyle

Father of modern chemistry.

Atoms

Boyles Law- Temp, volume, pressure of gas effect each other.

26

What is the enlightenment

New period that stressed reason and thought and power of an individual to solve problems

27

What was then age of reason

The enlightenment

28

Hobbes believes that

Humans are selfish and wicked

29

Hobbes social contract

People had to hand over power to a strong leader

30

Locke believed that

People could learn from experience and improve

Gov power comes from the consent of the governed

Everyone free & equal

3 natural rights

31

Locke's three natural rights

Life, liberty and property

32

Philosophes

Social critics that add reason

33

Philosophes 5 beliefs

1) Reason - learn the truth through reasonable thinking
2) nature - nature is good, don't fight nature
3) progress - we can improve
4) liberty - great thing
5) happiness

34

Voltaire

Wrote over 70 books. Most satires. Exiled to England. Fought for freedom of speech

35

Montesquieu

Separation of powers

36

Rousseau

Believed in Individual freedom. Government is freely formed by the people.

Social contract between the people

37

Beccaria

•Promotes criminal justice.
•Against torture.
•Punishment should be based on crime.
•Speedy trial.
•No Capitol punishment

38

Mary Wollstonecraft

Fought for equal rights and education.

39

What book did Mary Wollstonecraft write?

A vindication of the rights of women

40

Legacy of the enlightenment

A) belief in progress - scientific knowledge grew
B) a more secular outlook - science explained mysteries, questioned religious beliefs
C) importance of individual - turns away from royalty to themselves

41

Paris

Cultural and intellectual capital of Europe

42

Diderot

Encyclopedia

43

Encyclopedia

Collection of articles and essays.

Banned by catholic church and French gov

44

What helped spread the enlightenment ideals across Europe

Newspapers, songs, pamphlets and the encyclopedia

45

Baroque style

Grand, ornate, dramatic

46

Neoclassical

Borrowed themes from classical Greece and Rome.

Music lighter and more elegant.

New form of literature - novels

47

Richardson

First English novel

48

What are Enlightened despots and what is so good about them

Embraced new ideas and made reforms based on enlightenment ideals.

This makes their country stronger and their rule more effective

49

3 enlightened despots

Frederick the great

Joseph II

Catherine the Great

50

Frederick the Great

•Granted religious freedom
•Reduced censorship
•Improved education
•Reformed justice system (no torture)
•"Servant of state"

51

Joseph II (Austria)

•Legal reforms
•Freedom of press and worship
•Abolished serfdom
•Peasants must be paid in cash

52

Catherine the Great (Russua)

RECOMMENDED
•Religious tolerance
•Abolishing torture and Capitol punishment
None changed because of boyers
(Wanted access to the Black Sea)

53

What happened to Poland and by who

Partitioned 3 times by Prussia Russia and Austria. Disappeared from map until the end of the world war

54

George III

King if England

55

Explain the three reasons the American colonies wanted to break away from England

•Population over two million without slaves
•Colonists see themselves less as Brits and more as New Yorkers or Virginians
•losing tie with England

56

Navigation act

American colonies had to sell most valuable products to Britain and pay Hugh taxes on imports from Netherlands and France

57

What was a result of Britain fighting I'm the French and Indian war

They wanted the colonists to help pay.

58

Stamp Act

Official stamp in wills, deeds, newspaper, printed materials.

Was first tax to be paid directly to British gov.

59

What was the colonists reaction to the stamp act

They argued it violated their natural rights = Petition of rights - no taxation without representation

60

Petition of rights

No taxation without representation

61

Boston tea party

Protest in an import tax on tea

62

First continental congress

Philadelphia - sent letter to the king

63

What caused the American revolution?

British soldiers and American militiamen fired on eachother

64

Second continental congress

Voted to raise army and give commend to George Washington

Declaration of Independence-Thomas Jefferson

65

How do colonial leaders justify the revolution?

With the ideas of the enlightenment

66

What were the four reasons America won the revolution?

1) more motivated
2) British generals were overconfident
3) time was on their side
4) had help from French

67

Who surrendered in the American Revolution?

Cornwallis

68

Articles of Confederation

Weak national gov.
No executive branch.
One body.
Each state had one vote.
9/13 to pass law.
Could not collect taxes or regulate trade.

69

What was a result of the failing Articles of Confederation

Constitutional convention

70

Constitutional convention

Meeting to revise Articles of confederation -55 delegates

71

Federalists

Support new constitution

72

Antifederalists

Against new constitution, wanted bill of rights

73

What did the new constitution have/do

Checks and balances, federal system, put the ideas if the enlightenment into practice

74

Federal system

Power is divided between national and state governments