Flashcards in Harrison's Ch. 6 Test Deck (75):
What Theory did Aristotle have?
What was the midievil view or geocentric theory
Earth is the center of the universe and the planets revolve around it in perfect circles.
What caused the Scientific Revolution?
People questioned the Geocentric theory
Before the scientific revolution where did people get their information
Looked to the Greeks, Romans, and the bible.
What theory did Copernicus have after 25 years of research?
What is the heliocentric theory
Sun center of the universe and planets have an elliptical orbit
What book did Copernicus write
On the revolution of heavenly bodies
Who continued Copernicus' work?
How did Brahe continue Copernicus' work?
By tracking heavenly bodies
Who was Brahes assistant and what did he do?
Kepler and he continued work on elliptical orbits
The scientific revolution was
Based in careful observation and questioning belief
What did Galileo do? (5)
Built telescope, learned surfaces are not smooth, wrote Starry Messenger, said sun had dark spots, Jupiter has 4 moons.
Explain the battle between the Catholic Church and Galileo
Dialogue of the two Cheif systems
What is the scientific method?
Procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Which two people helped advance it?
Descartes and Bacon
Encouraged others to experiment with their own conclusions
Law of gravity (everything attracts)
Saw bacteria & blood cells
Dissected body and provided detailed information about organs, bones, muscles
Smallpox vaccine from cowpox
Father of modern chemistry.
Boyles Law- Temp, volume, pressure of gas effect each other.
What is the enlightenment
New period that stressed reason and thought and power of an individual to solve problems
What was then age of reason
Hobbes believes that
Humans are selfish and wicked
Hobbes social contract
People had to hand over power to a strong leader
Locke believed that
People could learn from experience and improve
Gov power comes from the consent of the governed
Everyone free & equal
3 natural rights
Locke's three natural rights
Life, liberty and property
Social critics that add reason
Philosophes 5 beliefs
1) Reason - learn the truth through reasonable thinking
2) nature - nature is good, don't fight nature
3) progress - we can improve
4) liberty - great thing
Wrote over 70 books. Most satires. Exiled to England. Fought for freedom of speech
Separation of powers
Believed in Individual freedom. Government is freely formed by the people.
Social contract between the people
•Promotes criminal justice.
•Punishment should be based on crime.
•No Capitol punishment
Fought for equal rights and education.
What book did Mary Wollstonecraft write?
A vindication of the rights of women
Legacy of the enlightenment
A) belief in progress - scientific knowledge grew
B) a more secular outlook - science explained mysteries, questioned religious beliefs
C) importance of individual - turns away from royalty to themselves
Cultural and intellectual capital of Europe
Collection of articles and essays.
Banned by catholic church and French gov
What helped spread the enlightenment ideals across Europe
Newspapers, songs, pamphlets and the encyclopedia
Grand, ornate, dramatic
Borrowed themes from classical Greece and Rome.
Music lighter and more elegant.
New form of literature - novels
First English novel
What are Enlightened despots and what is so good about them
Embraced new ideas and made reforms based on enlightenment ideals.
This makes their country stronger and their rule more effective
3 enlightened despots
Frederick the great
Catherine the Great
Frederick the Great
•Granted religious freedom
•Reformed justice system (no torture)
•"Servant of state"
Joseph II (Austria)
•Freedom of press and worship
•Peasants must be paid in cash
Catherine the Great (Russua)
•Abolishing torture and Capitol punishment
None changed because of boyers
(Wanted access to the Black Sea)
What happened to Poland and by who
Partitioned 3 times by Prussia Russia and Austria. Disappeared from map until the end of the world war
King if England
Explain the three reasons the American colonies wanted to break away from England
•Population over two million without slaves
•Colonists see themselves less as Brits and more as New Yorkers or Virginians
•losing tie with England
American colonies had to sell most valuable products to Britain and pay Hugh taxes on imports from Netherlands and France
What was a result of Britain fighting I'm the French and Indian war
They wanted the colonists to help pay.
Official stamp in wills, deeds, newspaper, printed materials.
Was first tax to be paid directly to British gov.
What was the colonists reaction to the stamp act
They argued it violated their natural rights = Petition of rights - no taxation without representation
Petition of rights
No taxation without representation
Boston tea party
Protest in an import tax on tea
First continental congress
Philadelphia - sent letter to the king
What caused the American revolution?
British soldiers and American militiamen fired on eachother
Second continental congress
Voted to raise army and give commend to George Washington
Declaration of Independence-Thomas Jefferson
How do colonial leaders justify the revolution?
With the ideas of the enlightenment
What were the four reasons America won the revolution?
1) more motivated
2) British generals were overconfident
3) time was on their side
4) had help from French
Who surrendered in the American Revolution?
Articles of Confederation
Weak national gov.
No executive branch.
Each state had one vote.
9/13 to pass law.
Could not collect taxes or regulate trade.
What was a result of the failing Articles of Confederation
Meeting to revise Articles of confederation -55 delegates
Support new constitution
Against new constitution, wanted bill of rights
What did the new constitution have/do
Checks and balances, federal system, put the ideas if the enlightenment into practice