Flashcards in French Revolution/Napoleon Deck (56):
Which estate made up 80% of the population?
Who was in the 1st Estate?
Catholic clergy members- 1% of population 10% of land
Who made up the 2nd estate?
Rich Nobles-2% of population 20% of land
Who was in the 3rd Estate?
Bourgeoisie- well educated sometimes more rich than nobles
Urban Workers-very poor often out of work
97% of population
Who were extravagant spenders in France?
Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette's nickname
What was the meeting of the Estates General?
Assembly to agree on a new tax
What was the old way of the Estates General?
Each estate met separately and had one vote
How did the 3rd estate want to meet?
Everyone together and each delegate to have one vote
What was the National Assembly?
Third Estate delegates proclaimed end of monarchy
What was the 1st deliberate act of revolution in France?
The National Assembly
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
National Assembly broke into tennis courts and promised to stay until a new constitution was written
What was the Great Fear?
Peasants burned paperwork that forced them to pay taxes to nobles
What did the women who marched on Versailles demand?
Cheaper bread and Louis and Marie to come back to Paris
What were the 4 natural rights in the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Life, Liberty, Security, and Resistance to Oppression
What did the Assembly to in France?
State controlled church-church officials elected; sold church land
Established freedom of speech and religion
What body was created when France became a constitutional monarchy?
The Legislative Assembly
Who sat on the right; left; in the middle?
R- conservatives; opposed monarchy
L-radicals; wanted limited monarchy
Who were the Émigrés?
Nobles and others who fled France-wanted old regime back
Who were the Sans-Culottes?
They wore long pants- common people
What did Austria and Prussia demand to ensure France wouldn't be attacked?
That Louis and Marie weren't hurt
What was the September Massacre?
French people raided prisons and killed 1st and 2nd estate members
What did the National Convention do?
Declared France a republic
What did Jean-Paul Marat do?
Printed lists of people he thought should be killed
Another important Jacobin
What was the guillotine?
Machine used for execution in France
What age citizens were drafted?
What did Robspierre do?
Changed calendar-no Sunday-renamed days; closed all churches in Paris
Who ruled in the reign of terror?
What was the new system after Robspierre?
2 legislative houses; executive body of 5 men called the Directory
What did Napoleon do to scare royalist protesters?
Fired blanks in the cannons and scared them away without killing or destroying anything
What took the place of the Directory?
A group of 3 consoles-people ruling together
What is a Coup'd'etat?
Sudden seizure of power- means blow to the state
What is a plebiscite?
Vote of the people
What was Napoleons Plebiscite for?
A new construction that made him the only ruler
What did Napoleon do to help the economy?
Efficient tax collection; national bank; set up lycees
What is a lycée?
How did Napoleon fix the religious problem in France?
Signing agreement with pope saying that he recognized church authority in his country
What legal system did Napoleon create?
What unprecedented thing did Napoleon do?
Took crown from pope and crowned HIMSELF emporer
What French colony demanded rights?
Who did Napoleon sell his American land to?
Who fought against France in battle of Trafalgar?
Britain, Russia, Australia, and Sweden
Who led the British in Trafalgar?
Who did Napoleon marry?
What were Napoleons 3 mistakes?
1. Continental System-blockade of Brittain
2. Peninsular War- sent army through Spain to get to Portugal
3. Invaded Russia- they tricked him by leading him inland behind a burnt path
Where was Napoleon exiled the first time?
What happened when Nap. Escaped Elba.
Became emporer of France again and defeated again
Where was he exiled to 2nd time?
What was the Congress of Vienna?
Meetings to rebuild Europe
Who's ideas were used in the congress?
What were Matternich's ideas?
-surround France with strong countries
-restore a balance of power
What was the Holy Alliance?
Alliance between Russia, Austria, Prussia to stop the revolution
Concert of Europe
European nations would help each other if rebellion broke out; bigger than Holy Alliance
Where did revolutionary ideas spread?