Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (142):
1

aorta

largest artery, receives blood from left ventricle and branches all over the body

2

artery

vessel that carries blood away from heart, all arteries except the pulmonary and umbilical carry oxygenated blood.

3

arteriole

small vessel that carries blood from arteries to capillaries

4

atrioventricular (AV) node

small mass in right atrium that passes impulses from the SA node toward ventricles

5

atrioventricular (AV) valve

valve between the atrium and ventricle on both sides of heart.
right = tricuspid valve
left = mitral valve

6

atrium

entrance chamber to heart

7

AV bundle

band of fibers that transmit impulses

8

blood pressure

force exerted by blood against the wall of a vessel

9

bundle branches

Branches of the AV bundle that divide into left and right sides of the interventricular septum

10

capillary

A microscopic blood vessel through which materials are exchanged through blood and the tissues

11

cardiovascular system

Heart & blood vessels

12

depolarization

a change in electrical charge from resting state in nerves/muscles

13

diastole

Relaxation phase of heartbeat

14

electrocardiography

ECG. Study of electrical current of heart as detected by electrodes on the surface of the body.

15

endocardium

Thin membrane that lines chambers of heart and covers the valves

16

epicardium

thin, outermost layer of the heart wall

17

functional murmur

normal sound produced by heart

18

heart

muscular organ with 4 chambers that contracts rhythmically to propel blood around the body via blood vessels.

19

heart rate

beats (contractions) per minute = bpm

20

heart sounds

Sounds produced as heart functions. Loudest are the alternate closing of the valves; S1 and S2

21

inferior vena cava

large inferior vein that brings low 02 blood from lower half of body to the right atrium of the heart

22

left AV valve

Valve between left atrium and left ventricle.
(mitral or bicuspid valve)

23

mitral valve

Valve between left atrium and left ventricle.
(left AV valve or bicuspid valve)

24

myocardium

Thick middle layer of heart wall composed of cardiac muscle

25

pericardium

fibrous sac surrounding heart

26

pulmonary artery

vessel that carries blood from right side to lungs

27

pulmonary circuit

system of vessels that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the left side of the heart

28

pulmonary veins

vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart

29

pulmonary valve

valve at entrance to pulmonary artery

30

pulse

wave of increased pressure in vessels each time the ventricles contract

31

purkinje fibers

carry impulses through walls of ventricles

32

repolarization

return of electrical charge to the resting state in nerves and muscles

33

right AV valve

valve between right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve)

34

septum

a wall dividing two cavities (wall between chambers of heart)

35

sinus rhythm

normal heart rhythm

36

sinoatrial SA node

small mass in right atrium that initiates impulse for each heartbeat (pacemaker)

37

sphygmomanometer

an instrument for determining arterial blood pressure

38

superior vena cava

large superior vein that brings blood low in 02 to back to right atrium from upper body

39

systemic circuit

system of vessels that bring oxygenated blood from left side of heart to all tissues except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to right side of heart

40

systole

contraction phase of heartbeat cycle

41

valve

structure that keeps fluid flowing in a forward direction

42

vein

vessel that carries blood back to heart, all except the pulmonary vein and umbilical vein care low oxygenated blood

43

ventricle

small cavity, one of the two lower pumping chambers of the heard

44

venule

small vessel that carries blood from capillaries to veins

45

vessel

tube or duct to transport fluid

46

cardi/o

heart

47

atri/o

atrium

48

ventricul/o

cavity, ventricle

49

valv/o

valve

50

valvul/o

valve

51

angi/o

vessel

52

vas/o

vessel, duct

53

vascul/o

vessel, duct

54

arter/o

artery

55

arteri/o

artery

56

arteriol/o

arteriole

57

aort/o

aorta

58

ven/o

vein

59

ven/i

vein

60

phleb/o

vein

61

hemangi/o

blood vessel

62

aneurysm

abnormal dilation or bursting of blood vessel caused by weakness of vessel wall (usually artery)

63

angina pectoris

feeling of constriction around heart or pain that may radiate to left arm/shoulder brought on by exertion, caused by insufficient blood supply to heart

64

arrhythmia

abnormal heart rate

65

arteriosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries, loss of elasticity from fatty deposits, calcium salts or scar tissue

66

atherosclerosis

development of fatty deposits lining arteries causing narrowing of lumen and hardening of wall

67

ather/o

porridge, gruel
ex. atherosclerosis - fatty patches that cause arteries to harden

68

bradycardia

slow heart rate, less than 60 bmp

69

cerebrovascular accident

CVA, damage to brain from reduction in blood flow

70

coarctation of the aorta

localized narrowing of aorta with restricted blood flow

71

C-reactive protein

CRP, protein produced during systemic inflammation (contributes to atherosclerosis, high CRP levels indicate cardiovascular disease)

72

deep vein thrombosis

inflammation of the deep veins, associated with blood clots

73

dissecting aneurysm

aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers

74

dyslipidemia

disorder in serum lipid levels which leads to atherosclerosis (hyperlipidemia = high lipid levels, hypercholesterolemia = high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia = high triglycerides)

75

dyspnea

labored breathing

76

edema

swelling

77

embolism

obstruction of blood vessel (usually blood clot)

78

fibrillation

spontaneous contraction of ventricle or atria muscles

79

heart block

interference in the electrical conduction in heart, leads to arrhythmia

80

heart failure

heart's inability to maintain adequate blood circulation

81

hemorrhoid

varicose vein in the rectum

82

hypertension

high blood pressure

83

infarct

area of dead tissue (necrosis) resulting from a blockage or narrowing of the artery that supplies the area

84

ischemia

deficient blood supply to a localized area caused by circulatory obstruction

85

murmur

abnormal heart sound

86

myocardial infarction

MI.
area of dead tissue (necrosis) in cardiac muscle due to blockage or narrowing of artery

87

occlusion

closing off, or obstruction of vessel

88

patent ductus arteriosus

Ductus arteriosus is a vessel that allows the blood to bypass the lungs of a fetus, once the baby is born and air enters the lungs this vessel should close, if the vessel persists after birth is causes abnormal blood flow

89

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein

90

plaque

A patch of fatty deposit on a vessel wall that impede flow and block it up.

91

rheumatic heart disease

damage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus, the antibodies produced to fight the infection leave scarring in the valves

92

septal defect

An opening in the septum between atria or ventricles, commonly the persistence of the foramen ovale (an opening to bypass the lungs in a fetus) after the baby is born

93

shock

circulatory failure resulting in inadequate blood supply to tissues

94

cardiogenic shock

caused by heart failure

95

hypovolemic shock

caused by loss of blood volume

96

septic shock

caused by bacterial infection

97

stenosis

constriction or narrowing of an opening

98

stroke

damage to brain resulting from reduction of blood flow

99

syncope

temporary loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to brain

100

tachycardia

abnormally rapid heart rate, over 100bpm

101

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of vein = blood clot

102

thrombosis

development of a blood clot

103

thrombus

blood clot

104

varicose vein

a twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood and chronic dilation of the vessel

105

ablation

removal or destruction.
a catheter is used to destroy part of the heards conduction pathway to correct arrhythmia

106

angioplasty

procedure to reopen a narrowed vessel and restore blood flow.
ex. removing plaque, inflating balloon within vessel or using a 'stent' to keep vessel open

107

artificial pacemaker

battery operated device that generates electrical impulses to regulate heartbeat

108

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPR.
Restoration of cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation after cardiac arrest using artificial respiration and chest compressions

109

cardioversion

correction of an abnormal cardiac rhythm (with drugs or electric current)

110

coronary angiography

radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of catheter threaded through blood vessels into heart

111

coronary artery bypass graft

CABG
surgical creation of a shunt to bypass a blocked coronary artery, the aorta is reconnected to a point past the obstruction using a piece of another vessel.

112

coronary calcium scan

heart scan
Method for viewing vessel narrowing calcium deposits in coronary arteries.

113

creatine kinase MB

CK-MB
Enzyme released in increased amounts from cardiac muscle cells following myocardial infarction, helps to diagnose MI and determine extent of muscle damage.

114

CT angiography

CTA
Computed tomography scan used to view vessels in heart and other organs by injecting small amount of dye into arm.

115

defibrillation

Use of electronic device to deliver a brief electric shock to the heart in order to restore normal contractions of the heart

116

echocardiography

ultrasound to view internal cardiac structures

117

lipoprotein

a compound of protein with lipid.
Classified according to density, VLDL = very low density, LDL = low density and HDL= high density. Higher levels of HDL are correlated with good cardiovascular health

118

percutaneous transluminal coranary angioplasty

PTCAD
dialation of sclerotic blood vessel by means of inflating a balloon catheter inside the vessel in attempt so flatten the plaque against the wall.

119

stent

A small metal device in shape of coil or slotted tube that is placed inside a vessel after a balloon angioplasty

120

stress test

evaluation of physical fitness by continuous ECG monitoring during exercise

121

thalium stress test

thalium is injected to trace blood flow during exercise test.

122

troponin

Tn
A protein in muscle cells that regulates contraction, increased levels indicate recent myocardial infarction (MI)

123

appendix

small mass of lymphoid tissue attached to start of large intestine

124

lymph

thin, plasma like fluid that drains from tissues and is transported in lymphatic vessels

125

lymph node

small mass of lymphoid tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel that filters lymph

126

lymph/o

lymph, lymphatic system

127

lymphaden/o

lymph node

128

lymphangi/o

lymphatic vessel

129

splen/o

spleen

130

thym/o

thymus

131

tonsil/o

tonsil

132

lymphatic system

system that drains fluid/proteins from tissues and returns them to bloodstream, participates in immunity and aids in absorption of fats from digestive tract

133

peyer patches

collection of lymphoid tissue in lining of intestine

134

right lymphatic duct

lymphatic duct that drains fluid from body's upper right side

135

spleen

large red/brown organ in upper left region of abdomen, filters blood and destroys old red blood cells

136

thoracic duct

lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper left side of the body and all of lower body (left lymphatic duct)

137

thymus

a lymphoid organ in the upper chest beneath the sternum, functions in immunity

138

tonsils

small masses of lymphoid tissue located in regions of the throat

139

lymphadenitis

infection causing inflammation/enlargement of lymph nodes

140

lymphangitis

inflammation of lymphatic vessels as a result of bacterial infection

141

lymphedema

swelling of tissues with lymph caused by obstruction or excision of lymphatic vessels

142

lymphoma

and neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissue