Chapter 9: Key Industry Developments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Key Industry Developments Deck (15):
1

What was the most far-reaching development int he cotton industry?

Th wider use of the power loom. Cartwright's steam-driven wooden invention of 1789 was clumsy and inefficient, although its importance lay in its potential application for producing large quantities of cloth under one factory roof.

2

What modifications were applied to Cartwright's original ideas?

First by William Horrocks in 1803 and 1813, then in the 1820s by Richard Roberts, who made a reliable, cast-iron power loom in 1822.

3

What was the impact of Richard Robert's modifications to the power loom in 1822?

This version was extensively used in textile factories across the country and revolutionised cloth production. It was reckoned the number of power looms in operation rose from 2400 in 1803 to about 100,000 30 years later.

4

What was the most important technical improvement in the iron industry?

The introduction of the hot-air blast furnace, developed by James Beaumont Neilson by 1828. It allowed a better quality of iron to be obtained and raw coal could be used instead of coke, making the proess cheaper and more efficient.

5

What was James Beaumont Neilson's hot air blast furnace in 1828 compared to?

It was hailed at the time as 'as great an advantage in the iron trade as Arkwright's machinery was in the ctton trade'.

6

Although there was a massive increase in the output of coal, what happenedto the coal-mining industry?

There was surprisingly little innovation in the coal-mining industry in the early years in the nineteenth century.

7

What were coal mines like to work in?

They were still relatively small and dangerous places to work and the biggest killer in the mines was methane gas.

8

What was done to try to improve safety in the coal mines?

A safety lamp devised by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1813 inserted gauze around the naked flame and prevented explosion and an air pump was devised to help ventilation, but little else was done to improve safety.

9

What was the more efficient steam engine applied successfully to?

A new transport system the railway.

10

Why was the railway needed, for example, in the coal industry?

For moving coal from the pit head to foundries, factories and other markets.

11

When did the Stockton to Darlington railway line open?

1825

12

When did the first passenger railway using steam locomotives open?

1830- the Liverpool to Manchester line.

13

What was the impact of the immediate success of the railways?

It prompted the railway companies to build railway lines across the country.

14

Why was the railway one of the key developments of the industrial age?

It got the economy moving, transporting people and goods at speed and low cost.

15

What was the immediate positive impact of the success of the railways?

It increased the levels of employment as railway work required a labour force of thousands. It also gave a great boost to the iron and coal industries.