Flashcards in Chapter 3: Cotton, Iron, Coal, Canals Deck (24):
Where was the growth of the Cotton Industry due to technological advances and improved methods of Industrial organisation most profound?
Lancashire, where the factory stem and power-driven machinery were most commonly found.
What was the domestic system of production (cottage industry)?
Small scale operations, used to produce wool and linen. Carried out in people's homes or small workshops, by means of a spinning wheel and a hand-loom.
What were the weaknesses of the domestic system of production?
The processes were slow and lacked quality control, and production was limited, allowing little prospect of expansion.
How did the cotton industry start to grow?
There was an increased import of raw cotton.
What were the advantages of cotton clothing? What were the impacts of these?
It was cheaper, more comfortable to wear and easier to wash. For these reasons, cotton manufacturing was quickly established in two areas- Lancashire and Lanarkshire
Where was an abundance of raw cotton shipped across from?
The West Indies, where British merchants and traders had a dominating influence on both production and export.
How did the canal industry impact the cotton industry?
A canal system connected cotton factories to the ports and to other towns for redistribution.
What was Arkwright's water frame?
Developed in 1769, heralded the start of the factory system of production and revolutionized the industry.
What was Samuel Crompton's 'Mule'?
Developed in 1779, a cross between the water frame and Hargreaves' 'Spinning Jenny'. It produced exceptionally high quality yarn that was both strong and fine. Once harnessed to water power, its use became widespread in factories and by the 1820s was acknowledged as the most important invention in spinning.
What did the mechanisation of the spinning process result in? How did Edmund Cartwright set this right?
It left the weaving process behind. The industry could not function efficiently while this imbalance persisted. In 1789, Edmund Cartwright designed a power loom which was operated by steam power. Industrialisation had entered a new phase and by 1820, the cotton industry was fully mechanized and the balance was set between spinning and weaving.
How did the developments in the manufacture of cotton give a vital boost to the iron industry?
As new cotton mills were built to accommodate bigger and more sophisticated machines, and massive water wheels were designed to generate the power to run them, demand for iron increased?
How did the output of pig iron rise?
68,000 tons in 1788 to 250,000 tons in 1804.
Why were Iron foundries built on the edge of coal fields?
To access their essential source of fuel cheaply and easily.
Where did the Iron industry become concentrated? What were the effects of this on those areas?
Four main areas where there were supplies of both coal and iron ore: the Black Country, South Wales, South Yorkshire and Clydeside. As a result, many small villages in those areas like Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales quickly developed into large industrial towns with growing populations.
How did the growth of both the cotton and the iron industries depend on coal?
Coal replaced wood as a fuel in iron smelting and was mined in huge quantities to provide fuel to power steam engines in the factories.
How was coal essential for the process of industrialization?
It provided cheap fuel for any manufacturing process that required heat.
How did the output of coal increase?
Seven million tons in the 1780s to around fourteen million tons by 1812.
How was the canal industry essential for Industrial growth?
An efficient means of transporting raw materials to factories and manufactured goods to a wide market was essential for continuing Industrial growth.
What was the main development in the transport industry?
A network of canals were constructed across the country and the 1780s saw the height of the canal era.
What did the development of the canal industry enable?
Heavy and bulky goods could be transported more cheaply and easily than by road or river and new areas were opened up. Industrial centres were linked to sources of raw materials such as coal fields, markets and sea ports. Fresh agricultural produce could be carried by canal to the newly-expanding towns and centres of population.
Why were canal companies attractive investment opportunities?
It was in the interests of entrepreneurial businessmen like the potter Josiah Wedgwood to invest as they needed canals to transport their own goods.
What were the shortcomings of canals?
They were difficult and expensive to construct, could only follow limited route, froze in winter and were slow to operate.
How long was the canal age?
Canals facilitated the process of industrialization at its most crucial period of development. However the canal age spanned approximately 70 years from 1759 was short-lived.