Flashcards in Chapter 9: Continuing Industrialisation Deck (19):
In spite of the long and costly wars with France, what happened to Britain's economy?
It continued to flourish in the early years of the nineteenth century.
What is a problem in the historical debate surrounding the speed of growth in industries?
Change occurred slowly in most industries and rapidly in a few. Industrialisation was regional, not national and thus changes occurred in some places and not in others.
What were the three main industries, which can be used to measure the growth in Britain's economy?
Cotton, iron and coal.
How can coal be used to measure the growth of industry?
Coal was the main source of energy for industry, therefore it would seem to follow that if coal production was rising then industry was expanding. Figures show that coal production was rising.
How much of coal produced was used in the iron industry?
About half of the goal produced. Between 1815 and 1830 most figures suggest the production of pig iron doubled.
What figures suggest that the methods of production in the iron industry were becoming more efficient?
At the beginning of the century it took 8 tons of coall to produce 1 ton of pig iron; by 1830 this figure was down to 3.5 tons, suggesting that the methods of production n the iron industry were becoming more efficient.
What do statistics show happened to the cotton industry between 1815 and 1830?
Imports of raw cotton increased two- or threefold, and the export of manufactured cotton also increased.q
By the 1830s, how much of the industrial workforce was engaged in the cotton industry?
By the 1830s, how much of all British expots were textiles?
70% and raw cotton accounted for almost one fifth of Britain's imports.W
Which industry also reflected the growth of the export market?
The development of the shipbuilding industry. By 1830 the tonnage of ships built was 75,5000
What was the overall increase in production due to?
Th continuing development of steam power. More factories were powered by steam power rather than water power.
By 1832, what 'age' had started?
The new age of consumerism. By 1832, there were new fast-growing industries, services and technologies mainly associated with the early development of the railway. There were further developments in the steam power and more sopisticated machine tools and other machinery.
What was the effect of the numerous new machines invented by 1832?
Industrialisation spread to parts of the country previously untouched by the process- more hand-operated industries became mechanised, and increased productivity occurred in existing industries.
What happened after the Napoleonic Wars and the lifting of trade sanctions?
Trade expanded rapidly.
Apart from technical innovation and the efffects of its output on the economy, what else did Industrialisation impact?
During the 1820s, how did trade improve?
Due to Huskisson's free trade measures.
What growth contributed to carrying the Industrialisation process forward?
Population growth. In 1811 the population of the UK was 12 million and in 1831 it had risen to 16.3 million.
Where was the rate of population growth higher?
In industrial areas rather than in the rural areas, as the result of the migration to the industrial towns for work and the higher incidence of earlier marriages and births in the crowded urban areas.