Flashcards in Chapter 8: O'Connell Deck (17):
Since when had the movement for Catholic Emancipation festered?
Since the refusal of George III to contemplate its introduction as part of Pitt's deal with leading Catholics to agree to the Act of Union in 1800.
What was the Catholic Association?
Founded in 1823 by Daniel O'Connell in Ireland to take up the emancipation cause. The organisation's further aim was to repeal the Act of Union.
Who were the members of the Catholic Association?
Its small membrship was mainly middle class professionals but membership was extended to all those who paid a small levy of a penny a month. This opened membership up to the Irish peasantry.
How did the association progress?
It quickly became an effective pressure group and due to its alarmingly rapid success it was equally speedily made illegal.
How did O'Connell bypass the fact that the Catholic Association was made illegal?
By setting up a new association named the Order of Liberation.
By his acions, who had O'Connell succeeded in uniting?
The Catholic Church, the middle class and the Irish peasants to press for emancipation.
Who were the Irish Catholic voter persuaded into voting for in the 1826 General Election?
Persuaded into voting for liberal, pro-emancipation candidates, albeit Protestant ones, in order to give the emancipation debate prominence.
When was a by-election called in County Clare?
Why was a by-election called in County Clare?
To enable Irish Protestant landlord Vesey Fitzgerald to take up a position in Wellington's cabinet.
Who won the County Clare election?
Daniel O'Connell by a ratio of two votes to one.
What was the result of O'Connell winning the County Clare election?
Threw Wellington's government into a quandary. It was possible at the next general election that Catholics would stand for every Irish seat and be elected. The situation was tense and there was a fear of civil unrest in Ireland.
Why could Wellington not refuse O'Connell his seat in Parlliament?
It would cause a violent reaction and Peel and Wellington wanted to preserve law and order in Ireland and avoiid the possible scenario of a break up of the Union.
In response to O'Connell winning a seat in Parliament, what did Wellington and Peel do?
In February 1829 they capitulated and agreed to introduce a Catholic Emancipation Bill.
What was the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act?
It made Roman Cathlics eligible for all ofices of state bar Regent, Lord Chancellor and Lord Lieutnenant General. No oath of suprmacy was required to take a seat in either the Lords or Commons.
Despite the granting of Catholic Emancipation, what action was taken against O'Connell?
The Catholic Association was banned and the 40 shilling franchise in the Irish counties was raised to £10, taking away the right to vote from the Catholic smallholders who had handed victory to O'Connell.
What final request did Wellington make?
He insisted that O'Connell stood again for election, as the previous election was illegal as it took place befor the act was passed. This soured Irish opinion for the future.