Flashcards in Chapter 5: Ireland Deck (19):
What religion was most of the Irish population and what problems did this create?
Most of the Irish population were Catholics and the majority f these belonged the peasant class. Most of Ireland's land was granted to English Protestant Settlers, while most of the Irish became tenants of largely absentee landlords, who were members of the aristocracy.
What was the Irish Parliament granted in 1782? Why?
After unrest in Ireland, the Irish Parliament was granted legislative independence.
Even after the Irish Parliament's granted independence in 1782, what were the issues?
Parliament was still dominated by the Anglican ascendancy, the administration was still controlled by England through the Lord Lieutenant, and Catholics were still excluded and denied full civil rights. Small Irish Presbyterian (wider groyp of Dissenters) were also denied civil rights. Their businesses were hampered by unfair trading restrictions and taxation.
What did the French Revolution encourage?
The Irish Catholics and Presbyterians to demand reforms.
When was the Society of United Irishmen Formed?
October 1791. Their aim was to establish a democracy in Ireland through Parliamentary reform and seek equal rights for all men of whatever eligion. One of the founders was Wolfe Tone, a talented young Protestant barrister frm Dublin.
What did Wolfe Tone, founded of the Society of United Irishmen believe?
That the ascendancy (who owed their position to Westminister support) would have to be ousted if the Presbyterians were to gain freedom to properly persue their own interests. He propsed they worked together with the Catholics for politial rights. His ultimate desire was for complete separation from England.
How did Pitt attempt to dampen Catholic enthusiasm for the United Irishmen?
By persuading the Dublin Parliament to pass a Catholic Relief Act in 1793, allowing Catholics the right to vote, but not to become MPs. A half thought through attempt in 1795 to introduce full Catholic Emancipation was met with fierce opposition from George III and was dropped.
What was the effect of the failed attempt for Catholic Emancipation in 1795?
It appeared to stoke up old tensions between Catholics and Protestants, while at the same time adding fuel to the determination of the United Irishmen for an independent Ireland.
What was Wolfe Tone involved in plotting during 1797-8?
French landings in Ireland to overthrow the government. The attacks failed and Tone was captured. On shore, the poorly organised, poorly armed rebellion by the United Irishmen supported by the peasantry, was overwhelmed by government troops.
What became clear to Pitt after Society of United Irishmen's attempt to overthrow the government in 1797-98?
That the Protestant-dominant Irish Parliament could no longer maintain stability, and this was the catalyst to carry through his plan for union with Ireland.
If Pitt was to bring Ireland into the British political system, which two main issues would he have to consider?
He would have to persuade the Dublin Parliament to accept fewer seats in the Westminister Parliament and he would have to bribe the Catholics with the promise of emancipation, to avoid danger of a further upriing.
How was the Act of Union, 1800 passed?
With much persuasion and patronage in Dublin. And promise of Emancipation. Honours, appointments and pensions. The small Presbyterian population in the North were easily satisfied with the promise of concessions for their linen trade.
Pitt promise Catholic Emancipation, but why did he not follow through with it?
Intervention from George III prevented the promised relief to the Catholics, particularly the right to sit in Parliament. As a matter of principle, Pitt felt obliged to resign after 17 years in office.
Why did Catholics want Emancipation?
Both Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists were prevented from holding public office, voting or serving in Parliament. In Ireland, 90% of the population was Catholic, and this was the cause of growing resentment, particularly after the Act of Union.
Who were the Dissenters?
Intellectual Radicals, expressing criticism of the establish church, the political establishment and the influence and values of the aristocracy who dominated politics and society.
Who were the Radicals in London?
Outspoken and extreme in their views but largely belonged to the respectable classes and were not perceived as posing any real threat to the government. They were excited at the advent of the French Revolution, imagining it would spur on the government at home to extend civil and religious rights and freedoms. When later extreme violene of the revolutionaries became known in Britain, many of them changed their position.
What type of radicalism did the 1790s see?
Popular radicalism. Groups of artisans from London and the industrial towns and cities of Scotland and the North of England were inspired by Tom Paine's Rights of Man to join radical societies.
Why did the increase popular radicalism cause alarm?
There had never been any consideration that the lower orders could possibly have any right to a political existence, and it was instrumental in bringing about the change in government policy from one of 'gradual reform' to the introduction of repressive measures.