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1

immunology

study of physiological mechanisms that humans and other animals use to defend their bodies from invasion by all sorts of other organisms

2

immunization/ vaccination

procedure whereby severe disease is prevented by prior exposure to the infectious agent in a form that cannot cause disease

3

what are the four pathogens

bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites

4

what is the bodys first defense against infection

the skin

5

immunity

the bodys capacity to remember previous pathogen encounters and protect against subsequent infection by that same pathogen

6

epithelium is protected by layers of

keratinized cells

7

how can the epithelium be breached

wounds,burns or surgical procedures

8

epithelia lines

body cavities as well

9

respiratory, gastro and urogenital tract lined with

mucus

10

how does mucus move in these tracts

beating of cilia, act like escalator to move things out

11

epithelia produce what that kill bacteria, fungi,and enveloped viruses by perturbing their membranes

anitmicrobial peptides

12

innate immune response has two parts

1. recognition of pathogen
2. recruitment of destructive effector mechanisms

13

effector mechanisms come from

effector cells

14

cytokines

soluble proteins that interact with other cells to trigger innate immune response

15

overall effect of innate immune response is to

induce state of inflammation

16

pathogen can outrun innate if person

malnourished, poorly housed, deprived of sleep, or stressed in other ways

17

lymphocytes are

white blood cells

18

adaptive immune response

organized around an ongoing infection and adapts to nuances of the infecting agent

19

adaptive immunity evolved only in

vertebrates

20

receptors in innate immunity are not

specific

21

receptors in adaptive immunity are

specific to specific pathogen

22

lymphocytes recognize pathogens by using

cell surface receptors

23

the genes of lymphocytes receptors have

cut, spliced and modified during lymphocyte development

24

innate immunity is what type of response

rapid, constant

25

adaptive immunity is what type of response

slow response (days to weeks), improves during response

26

clonal selection/ clonal expansion

specific lymphocyte receptors chosen to proliferate and differentiate of effector cells to kill pathogen

27

what causes the time frame of adaptive immunity

response of having to build effector cells to that specific pathogen

28

immunological memory

elicit a stronger and faster adaptive response, terminating infection with less illness, memory cells

29

memory cells create what kind of immunity

acquired memory/ protective immunity

30

primary immune response

first time an adaptive immune response is made to given pathogen