Chapter Three: Individual Causes of Delinquency Flashcards Preview

Sociology 231: Juvenile Delinquency > Chapter Three: Individual Causes of Delinquency > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter Three: Individual Causes of Delinquency Deck (12)
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1

Trait Theories

(Biological Positivism) theories that suggest that juveniles commit crime because of particular traits, characteristics, deficits, or psychopathologies

2

Classical School

Founders: Montesquieu, Bentham, and Beccaria
Basic Premise: Humans guided by felicific calculus; humans are rational creatures with free will, and thus can be held responsible for their behavior/
Sees punishment as practical, and that it should be proclaimed in advance, proportionate to the offense, and should outweigh the rewards on the crime

3

Rationality

Ability to make sound deciions

4

Felicific Calculus

a method for determining the sum total of pleasure and pain produced by an act; also the assumption that human beings strive to obtain a favorable balance of pleasure and pain

5

Routine Activities Apporach

the contention that the crime trends and cycles are related to the nature of everyday patterns of social interaction that characterize the society in which they occur

6

Positivism

the view that laws govern human behavior and these laws can be understood and used

7

Biological Determinism

a philosophy that our genes determine our behavior

8

Sociobiology

an expression of biological positivism that stresses the interaction between biological factors within an individual and the influence of a person's particular environment; the systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior

9

Traits Associated with Delinquency

Atavism - Ceasre Lombroso
"Warrior" Gene - Mutation on the MAOA gene
Intelligence - Hirschi & Hindelang
Body Type (Mesomorphs)

10

Neuropsychological Factors Associated with Delinquency

ADHD

11

Environmental Factors Associated with Delinquency

Maternal smoking
Maternal alcohol use
Lead exposure
Poor nutrition

12

Personality Factors Associated with Delinquency

Psychopath