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Sociology 231: Juvenile Delinquency > Exam 2 > Flashcards

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the personal traits, social positions, and values and beliefs that members of society attach to being male or female


Gender Role

a societal definition of what constitutes either masculine or feminine behavior


Sex-role Socialization

the process by which boys and girls internalize their culture's norms, sanctions, and expectations for members of their gender


Masculinity Hypothesis

the idea that as girls become more boylike and acquire more masculine traits, they become more delinquent


Feminist Theory of Delinquency

theory that adolescent females' victimization at home causes them to become delinquent and that this fact has been systematically ignored


Chivalry Theory

idea that the justice system tends to treat adolescent females and women more leniently because of their gender



the process by which individuals come to internalize their culture; through this process an individual learns the norms, sanctions, and expectations of being a member of a particular society


Family Related Risk Factors of Delinquency

broken homes
birth order
family size
delinquent siblings and criminal parents
quality of home life
family rejection
discipline in the home


Broken Home

a family in which parents are divorced or are no longer living together


Birth Order

the sequence of births in a family and a child's position in it: firstborn, middle, or youngest
middle child most likely to be delinquent


Family Size

the number of children in a family
the larger the family, the more likely of the children being delinquent



a disregard for the physical, emotional, or moral needs of children. Child neglect involves the failure of the parent or caregiver to provide nutritious food, adequate clothing and sleeping arrangements, essential medical care, sufficient supervision, access to education, and normal experiences that produce feeling of being loved, wanted, secure, and worthy


Child Abuse

the mistreatment of children by parents or caregivers; maybe be physical abuse, emotional abuse, or sexual abuse


Physical Abuse

the intentional behavior directed toward a child by the parent of caregiver to cause pain, injury, or death


Emotional Abuse

a disregard for the psychological needs of a child, including the lack of expressed love, withholding of contact or approval, verbal abuse, unrealistic demands, threats, and psychological cruelty


Sexual Abuse

the intentional and wrongful physical contact with a person, with or without his or her consent, that entails a sexual purpose or component



any intrafamily sexual abuse that is perpetrated on a child by a member of that child's family group that includes not only sexual intercourse but also any act designed to stimulate a child sexually or to use a child for sexual stimulation, either of the perpetrator or of another person


Running Away

the act of leaving the custody and home of parents or guardians without permission and failing to return within a reasonable length of time; a status offense



the act of destroying or damaging, or attempting to destroy or damage, the property of another without the owner's consent or destroying or damaging public property (except arsen)



a forceful physical assault with or without weapons. Includes many kinds of fighting, rape, other attacks, gang warfare, and so on.



the hurtful, frightening, or menacing actions undertaken by one person to intimidate another (generally weaker) person to gain that person's unwilling compliance, and/or to put him or her in fear


Academic Performance

achievement in schoolwork as rated by grades and other assessment measures;
poor performance is a factor in delinquency


In Loco Parentis

principle according to which a guardian or an agency is given the rights, duties, and responsibilities of a parent in relation to a particular child or children


Parens Patriae

a medieval English doctrine that sanctions the right of the Crown to intervene in natural family relations whenever a child's welfare was threatened; philosophy of which the juvenile court is based on


Blocked Opportunity Theory

those most likely to commit delinquent acts are those why do poorly in school or who believe they have little change of graduation


Strain Theory

the school is viewed as a middle-class institution in which lower-class children are frequently unable to perform successfully, and they turn to delinquency to compensate for feelings of status frustration, failure, and low self-esteem


Cultural Deviance Theory

because schools tend to reflect the characteristics of the community of which they are a part, attending a school in high-crime areas increases the likelihood of association with delinquent peers


Social Control Theory (for school)

the school is seen as one of the major socializing institutions, providing students with structure, incentives, expectations, and opportunities for social bonding; delinquency is likely to result when a strong bond to school does not develop


Labeling Theory

once students are defined as deviant, they adopt a deviant role in response to their lowered status


Radical Criminology

view the school as a means by which the privilege classes maintain power over the lower classes