Chapters 1 and 2 Exam Flashcards Preview

Life Sciences > Chapters 1 and 2 Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 1 and 2 Exam Deck (57):
1

This type of relationship occurs when one organism benefits from another organism and can cause harm in the other organism?

Parasitic.

2

The strongest bond?

Covalent

3

Instead of sharing, this bond transfers an electron to either a negatively charged or positively charged atom.

Ionic bond

4

What type of bond is a water molecule made from and what are the elements within?

Polar covalent. 2 hydrogen and one oxygen.

5

If you are using a general principle to predict an expected outcome you are using what?

Deductive reasoning.

6

What is a living being's ability to create energy through specific processes such as ATP known as?

Metabolism.

7

What do bases have

More OH-, less H+

8

What is evolution and what is evolution NOT?

Evolution is the theory of a genetic change in a population within an organism over time, but it is NOT about the origin of life.

9

This type of relationship between two organisms involves only one organism benefitting from the other, and the other doesn't give a shit?

Commencalism

10

The state of water in which the molecules are moving extremely fast and can barely cohede with each other (cohede?)

Gas

11

What are the 3 model systems used in the testing of scientific hypotheses and explain each?

1. C. elegans -used in understanding development and genetics in animals. 2. lab rats -drug testing due to similarity to humans. 3. Hela Cells - used for a wide array of research on the human body and such.

12

Which bond is usually denoted with a dotted line and consists of a hydrogen atom?

Hydrogen bond

13

What are the nine properties of life?

1. Order 2. Cells 3. Genetic information. 4. Growth and development 5. Reproduction 6. Regulation aka Homeostasis. 7. Metabolism 8. Response to environment 9. Evolution.

14

This type of relationship involves two (or more) organisms using each other for survival and benefit.

Mutualism

15

A top-down approach in science is known as what?

Deductive reasoning

16

What does a solution with an equal OH- and H+ called?

A pure substance

17

rewrite hydrogen ion

H+

18

What is a negatively charged Atom known as

Anion

19

What are the components of an atom

Protons, electrons and neutrons.

20

That which is measured or observed in an experiment

dependent variable.

21

Where do all chemical bonds occur in atoms?

The outer-most electron shell.

22

Temporary and weak attractions formed by a single atom are what?

Van der Waals

23

What are the steps of the Scientific Method?

1. Observation 2. Question 3. Hypothesis 4. Prediction 5. Experimentation 6. Conclusions

24

Bond formed when electrons are shared UNEQUALLY

polar covalent

25

If something has a lot of alkalinity it is also called a what?

Base

26

What is a positively charge atom known as?

A Cation

27

What does cohesion mean in reference to water?

Molecules bonding to each other aka like molecule to like molecule(through hydrogen bonding)

28

What is an ion?

An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons.

29

What is a charged atom known as?

An Ion

30

what is a non polar covalent bond?

bond formed when electrons are shared equally.

31

The state of water in which moilecules are super slow if not immobile and expanding?

ice

32

WHat are the chemical bonds?

Covalent (polar and non polar) Ionic Hydrogen Van der Waals

33

What are the elements that make up less that .01% of a human's body weight, and what are their significances?

The TRACE elements, important in maintaining and recovering health.

34

A bottoms-up approach in answering a question is known as what?

Inductive reasoning.

35

Whats the thing that cells have that help regulate their pH?

Buffers

36

A thing that is used in experimentation that isn't manipulated, changed or measured in the result?

An independent variable.

37

What are the 4 main elements that make up living organisms?

1. Carbon 2. Oxygen 3. Hydrogen 4. Nitrogen.

38

describe the structure of a water molecule

slightly bent. hydrogens are partially positive when bonded oxygens partially negative. Polar covalent.

39

What are two properties of water?

cohesive adhesive

40

In life, what is the term for a form's abilit to regulate and maintain a stable internal environment compared to the external environment?

Homeostasis.

41

What should you understand about statistical tests when it comes to error?

Stat. tests evaluate the chance of SAMPLING error, not OBSERVER error.

42

What are the 3 types of symbiotic relationships and what property of life are we talking about here?

We're talkin about a life's RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENT. The 3 symbiotics are: 1. Mutualism 2. Commencalism 3. Parasitic

43

Bond formed when electrons are shared equally?

Non polar covalent

44

WHat is a polar covalent bond?

Bond formed when electrons are shared UNEQUALLY

45

Where is most of the energy in the atom?

The outer electron rings, away from the nucleus.

46

WHat are the two things that make up a solution?

Solvent and Solute

47

The knowledge ascertained by observation, experimentation, crytically tested, systemized and brought under general principles is known as

Science.

48

what is pH a measure of?

the measure of Hydrogen ions in a solution

49

A type of bond when one or more electrons are shared between atoms is

Covalent

50

What kind of tests can be used to extend the results from a small sample to a much bigger population?

STatistical.

51

What is the outermost electron shell known as?

The Valence shell.

52

What must the solvent be in an aqueous solution>

Water

53

Explain adhesion with water?

Molecules attracting to different type of molecule.

54

This type of bond holds water molecules together

Hydrogen

55

The solute of a solution is the ______________ and the solvent is the ___________

Thing that dissolves/ thing that does the dissolving.

56

Whats a buffer?

A substance within a cell that helps maintain a pH

57

what do acids have more of?? what do they have less of

A higher number of H+ Less OH-