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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (107):
1

The chemical that is being broken down with the help of an enzyme is known as what?

Substrate?

2

Whats special about the fat soluble vitamin?

Stored in the body for long periods of time and pose a risk of toxicity if overconsumed.

3

What is passive transport?

Shit moving across membrane that DOES NOT REQUIRE ENERGY. and GOES WITH THE GRADIENT.

4

What contains an unpaired electron?

Free radical.

5

What is an important part of a diet but is not a nutrient because it isnt absorbed by the human body?

Fiber / Roughage

6

What is exocytosis?

A type of bulk transport where large molecules are moved out of a cells membrane

7

WHat are the chemical reactions that occur within an organism called?

Metabolism.

8

What is facilitated diffusion?

Typically used with charged or larger molecules wherein they need help from a TRANSPORT/CHANNEL PROTEIN TO MOVE THEM ACROSS. Still going from high to low concentration. and no energy but requires protein help.

9

Central vacuole looks like what now?

Fluid filled membranes that take up 90% of a plant cell.

10

plants animals or both Cytoskeleton

both but mostly important in animals

11

What is the cytoskeleton made up of?

microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules (remember what those do?)

12

Which organelle drives energy production?

Mitochondria

13

Whats up with the structure of a ribosome and why is that special?

not membrane bound. special becausee it can be found in prokaryote and eukaryotes.

14

What is "activation energy" and what is it referring to.

its talking about ENZYMES. and it basically is the way of saying the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.

15

What is bulk transport and what are the types?

movement of large molecules across the membrane. Endocytosis - into the cell exocytosis - out of the cell

16

Define what a macronutrient is.

Substances that are required in large amounts which include water, carbs, proteins and fats.

17

What is the only vitamin our cells can synthesize??

Vitamin D or Calcitriol

18

What do enzymes not do?

THEY DO NOT PROVIDE ANY FORM OF ENERGY (ESPECIALLY ACTIVATION ENERGY.

19

WHat is the thing known as where a substrate and an enzyme physically bind?

Active site

20

What are the things that are needed in large quantities?

Macronutrients.

21

What do carbs do?

The provide a great source of energy for cells

22

Define a micronutrient.

They are essential nutrients required in small amounts. They are not destroyed by the body during use, and are not burned for energy.

23

Thylakoids are found in what and help do what?

Found in chloroplasts and are responsible for photosynthesis

24

The thing that helps to support cell shape, support and movements. basically STRUCTURE?

Cytoskeleton.

25

Explain a plasma membrane. and do plants and animals have them?

Semiperm, phoslip bilayer, boundary of a cell. SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE. yes everyone has a plasma membrane

26

What are minerals?

Substances that do no contain CARBON but are essential to many cell functions.

27

How do enzymes increase rate of a reaction?

They lower the activation energy barrier.

28

Plants animals or both for the nucleus

both .

29

Whats the rough ER ?

ribosomes are embedded

30

Whats the centrioles made up of?

Microtubules

31

Which organelle contains DNA known as chromatin?

the nucleus

32

Who sets the standards for Tap Water?

the EPA

33

Whats the mitochondria do?

Assists in cellular respiration

34

What is the plasma membrane structure also called and what is it made up of?

The fluid mosaic model. Many differing lipids, and transport proteins embedded to help molecules in.

35

How do vitamins help the body?

They help with absorption of other nutrients. (because they are coenzymes!)

36

How are biological reactions sped up?

Ensymes

37

What is osmosis

involves the movement of water. is PASSIVE transport, and no energy is required.

38

What is the theory that says something about how mitochondria evolved to chloroplasts or something?

Endosymbiont theory

39

Lysosomes are made up of what to do what functions?

Digestive enzymes to help recycle damaged organelles and kill bacteia and shit.

40

Whats the active site

where an enzyme and a substrate physically bind.

41

What type of fats are the really bad ones?

Trans fatty acids.

42

What type of vitamin is urinated out and is not stored in the body?

A water soluble one.

43

What are antioxidants used to fight and protect against?

Free Radicals

44

What is a prokaryote

a non-membrane bound cell

45

What are essential amino acids?

Proteins that the body cannot produce itself. These include Lysine and valine.

46

Chloroplasts do what?

photosynthesis

47

What are free ribosomes, where are they found and what does it mean?

found in mitochondria meaning it is DNA

48

What is diffusion?

A type of passive transport where movement of molecules move from area opf HIGH concentration to area of LOW concentration. GOES WITH THE GRADIENT.

49

Whats a cell wall?

Different that membrane. only found in plants. Constructred from a carb (cellulose). Borders outside of Cell membrane

50

What are nutrients?

Substances that provide structural materials or energy

51

Which provides a great source of energy for cells?

Carbohydrates

52

Metabolism is what?

All the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.

53

plants, animals, or both for the mitochondria

both

54

What are the macronutrients?

Water, Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats (Lipids)

55

Hyopotonic means what?

has a low concentration of a solute

56

Define acrive transport

A form of transport that requires energy (ATP) to cross. moving AGAINST the gradient.

57

What is the thing in plants that is made of cellulose?

Cell wall.

58

How is metabolism sped up?

Enzymes.

59

What does the nucleus have physically that allows stuff acces?

Nuclear pore

60

What helps move chromosomes around during cell division?

Centrioles

61

plants animals or both Central vacuole?

plants only.

62

What does it mean when an enzyme changes the shape of the active site to bind specifically with a substrate?

Induce fit model.

63

Whatst the smooth ER

performs detoxification, no ribosomes embedded.

64

Types of passive transport?

Diffusion. Facilitated diffusion. Osmosis

65

What helps lower the activation energy barrier?

Enzymes.

66

Two types of Endoplasmic reticulum, what are they?

Rough and SMooth

67

What is pinocytosis?

Chemical movement

68

What term describes the interior of a phospholipid bilayer?

Hydrophobic

69

What is endocytosis and what are the 3ways?

bulk transport of large molecules across the membrane and into the cell. 1 Phagocytosis 2 PINOCYTOSIS 3 Receptor mediated

70

Saturated is to butter, as Unsaturated is to ____

Oil

71

What serves as an coenzyme and is a organic substance?

A vitamin.

72

What is a free radical??

A substance containing an unpaired electron that is therefore unstable and HIGHLY reactive, causing damage to the cells.

73

A substrate is what?

the chemocal that is being broken down with the help of an enzyme.

74

What organelle creates ATP jazz hands>??

Mitochondria

75

What kind of information does the nucleus hold

DNA aka Chromatin.

76

Lysosomes do what?

breakdown material taken in by PHAGOCYTOSIS. Recycle damaged organelles, destroy harmful bacteria

77

What is made up of a large subunit and small unit with rRNA

Ribosome

78

plants animals or both for centrioles?

both

79

What is a cell?

The fundamental unit of a living system.

80

Structure of Mitochondria

Double membrane, Inner membrane makes most of the energy

81

whats a eukaryote?

A MEMBRANE bound cell.

82

Hypertonic means what?

Has a high concentration of a solute.

83

What is the golgi apparatus function?

Shipping packaging and receiving of proteins.

84

What is the method of transport in which a protein is moving a molecule from high to low with no energy and with the gradient?

facilitated diffusion

85

What organelle stores genetic information?

The nucleus

86

Define a vitamin.

It is an organic substance, most being unable to be synthesized by the body and serve as coenzymes.

87

What are the five main nutrients vegetarians lack in thei diet?

Protein, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin B 12

88

What is the most conspicuous organelle out there?

The mofuggin Nucleus dog

89

What is photosynthesis essentially doing for the plant?

Creating its own food.

90

What organelle does the shipping and receiving?>

the golgi apparatus (go get it apparatus)

91

What is an organelle?

Performs a specific job required by the cell and works in conjunction with other organelles to keep everything going correctly.

92

What cannot leave the nucleus?

DNA

93

Which organelle, is the powerhouse of the cell?

the mitochondria

94

Whats that goddamn nucleus do?

performs mitosis. Duplicate genetic information. think about when u cut ur shit open and u have to regenerate, thats the nucleus sending out the support for that.

95

What do you think of when you hear the term selectively permeable?

Plasma membrane

96

isotonic means what?

Equal or similar concentration of a solute.

97

A semipermeable (selectovely permeable) phospholipid bilayer that defines the outer boundary of a cell?

The Plasma membrane.

98

Structure of chloroplast?

Double membrane with its own rybosomes, contains genetic info and has thylakoids.

99

What do the centrioles do?

help move chromosomes around when a cell divides

100

What do mitochondria contain and why?

They have their own DNA because of "freeribosomes"

101

What are enzymes?

PROTEINS that reduce amount of energy for a biological reaction to occur.

102

What are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity when consumed in excess?

Fat Soluble

103

What is the pacman in a cell called and which organelle is it found in?

Lysosome, its known as PHAGOCYTOSIS. aka CELL EATING.

104

Who sets the standards for bottled water?

the FDA

105

What happens during incomplete hydrogenation?

Trans fats are created which changes structure of fatty acid tails.

106

What do ribosomes do?

help facilitate PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.

107

What is hydrogenation?

When the levels of saturation of a fat are increased causing it to solidify.