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Part 1 Board Review > Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (78):
1

What type of bonds are in maltose?

alpha 1-4

2

What type of bonds are in lactose?

beta 1-4

3

What type of bonds are in sucrose?

alpha-beta 1-2

4

What type of bonds are in cellulose?

beta 1-4

5

What type of bonds are in amylose?

alpha 1-4

6

What type of bonds are in amylopectin?

alpha 1-4, alpha 1-6

7

What type of bonds are in glycogen?

alpha 1-4 & alpha 1-6

8

Which has longer branches, amylopectin or glycogen?

Amylopectin

9

Which is more branched, amylopectin or glycogen?

Glycogen

10

Type of bond b/w glycerol & fatty acids?

Ester bond

11

Types of essential fatty acids?

Arachidonic 20:4
Linolenic (Omega-3) 18:3
Linoleic (Omega-6) 18:2
EPA 20:5

12

What molecules are precursors for cholesterol synthesis?

Mevalonate
Acetyl CoA
Squalene
HMG CoA

13

Where are chylomicrons synthesized?

Intestinal mucosa

14

Which lipoproteins have the highest % of triglycerides?

Chylomicrons

15

Which lipoproteins have the lowest % of protein?

VLDLs

16

Which lipoproteins have the highest % of cholesterol?

LDL

17

Where does beta oxidation of fatty acids occur?

Mitochondria

18

What transports fatty acids into mitochondria for beta oxidation?

carnitine

19

What are examples of ketone bodies?

Acetoacetate
Acetone
Hydroxybutyrate

20

What is the primary substrate for lipogenesis?

Acetyl CoA

21

Where does lipogenesis occur?

Cytoplasm

22

What is the "most important" intermediate of lipogenesis?

Malonyl CoA

23

Which AA's have an aromatic ring?

Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Tyrosine

24

Which AA's are basic?

Histidine
Arginine
Lysine
"HAL"

25

Which AA's are neutral?

Serine
Threonine
Asparagine
Glutamine
"STAG"

26

Which AA's contain sulfur?

Methionine
Cysteine

27

Which AA's are not glucogenic?

Leucine
Lysine

28

Which AA's are branched?

Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine

29

Which AA's are acidic?

Glutamate
Aspartate

30

Which AA is a precursor to serotonin?

Tryptophan

31

Which AA is a precursor to GABA?

Glutamate

32

Which AA is a precursor to Histamine?

Histidine

33

Which AA is a precursor to Creatine?

Glycine/arginine

34

Which AA is a precursor to NAD?

Tryptophan

35

Which AA's are lacking in grains?

Lysine
Threonin
Tryptophan

36

Which AA carries ammonia to the urea cycle?

Glutamate

37

Which 3 AA's donate nitrogen for purines & pyrimidines?

Glutamine
Aspartate
Asparagine

38

Which 6 AA's is muscle able to oxidize?

Glutamate
Aspartate
Leucine
Valine
Isoleucine
Asparagine
GAL VIA

39

Which AA takes ammonia & lactate from muscles during exercise to the liver?

Alanine

40

What bond combines AA's to make proteins?

Peptide

41

What vitamin makes TPP?

Thiamine (B1)

42

What vitamin makes FAD, FADH?

Riboflavin (B2)

43

What vitamin makes NAD, NADH?

Niacin (B3)

44

What vitamin makes CoA?

Pantothenic Acid (B5)

45

What vitamin makes pyridoxal phosphate?

Pyridoxine (B6)

46

Which B vitamin is Folic Acid?

B9

47

Which B vitamin is cyanocobalamin?

B12

48

What macromineral is a component of bones, co-factor for kinase, needed for glucose breakdown?

Magnesium

49

What micromineral is a constituent of vit B12?

Cobalt

50

Which micromineral is a part of Cytochrome A oxidase (ETC)?

Copper

51

Which micromineral is a cofactor for decarboxylase?

Manganese

52

Which micromineral is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase?

Selenium

53

Which micromineral is a cofactor for carbonic anhydrase?

Zinc

54

Where does DNA replication occur?

Nucleus

55

Where does transcription occur?

Nucleolus

56

Where does the Kreb's cycle occur?

Mitochondria

57

What are the products for only ONE turn of the Kreb's cycle?

2 CO2
3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 GTP/ATP

58

What is the electron acceptor in the ETC?

Oxygen (forms water)

59

What is the total ATP production from oxidative phosphorylation?

36 (or 38)
Kreb's = 30 ATP
Glycerol-3-phosphate shunt = 4 ATP
Glycolysis = 2 ATP

60

Where does glycolysis occur?

Cytosol

61

Where does gluconeogenesis occur?

Cytoplasm & mitochondria of liver

62

Where does glycogenesis occur?

Cytoplasm of liver & muscle

63

Where does glycogenolysis occur?

Cytoplasm of liver & muscle

64

Where does lipogenesis, lipolysis, & cholesterol synthesis occur?

Liver

65

Where does the pentose phosphate pathway occur?

Cytosol

66

This is when the charge of an AA or protein is zero

Isoelectric point

67

Legumes are missing what AA?

Methionine

68

Sugars that differ in configuration at a single asymmetric center

Epimers

69

Molecules that are mirror images

Enantiomers

70

Atoms bonded in the same order but differ in precise orientation

Stereoisomers

71

An enzyme + cofactor is called what?

Holoenzyme

72

An enzyme w/o a cofactor is called what?

Apoenzyme

73

These regulate the rate of enzyme synthesis

Steroids

74

This is a protein that becomes an active enzyme when parts are removed

Zymogen

75

An area on the enzyme where a compound may bind & change the rate of activity

Allosteric site

76

What AA is the precursor to epinephrine?

Tyrosine

77

What is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas (tail)?

Insulin

78

What is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas, but has the opposite effect of insulin?

Glucagon