Spinal Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Part 1 Board Review > Spinal Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spinal Anatomy Deck (159):
1

What secondary vesicles are derived from the proencephalon?

Telencephalon
Diencephalon

2

What secondary vesicle is derived from the mesencephalon?

Mesencephalon (duh!)

3

What secondary vesicles are derived from the rhombencephalon?

Metencephalon
Myelencephalon

4

What is derived from the telencephalon?

Cortices
Basal ganglion

5

What is derived from the diencephalon?

Thalamus

6

What is derived from the mesencephalon?

Midbrain

7

What is derived from the Metencephalon?

Pons
Cerebellum

8

What is derived from the myelencephalon?

Medulla Oblongata

9

What develops from the foregut?

back of throat to 1st 1/3rd of duodenum

10

What develops from the midgut?

Last 2/3rd of duodenum to 1st 2/3rd of transverse colon

11

What develops from the hindgut?

Last 1/3rd of transverse colon to anus

12

What does the gubernaculum develop into in males & females?

Males: Scrotal lig. AKA gubernacular testis
Females: Suspensory lig. of ovary, ovarian lig. & round lig.

13

Only special sense to bypass the thalamus?

Sense of smell

14

What do pacinion receptors sense?

Vibration

15

What do Ruffini receptors sense?

Temperature

16

What do Meissners/merkel receptors sense?

Touch

17

What functions are the medulla & pons assoc. w/?

Vasomotor
Cardiac centers
Autonomics
CN 5-12

18

What functions are the midbrain assoc. w/?

Reflexes to light & sound
Prox. flexor relay
Motoric relay
CN 3 & 4

19

What functions is the thalamus assoc. w/?

Relay station
Sensory fibers

20

What function is the pulvinar region of the thalalmus assoc. w/?

Integration of sensory information

21

What is the ventral posteromedial (VPM) of the thalamus assoc. w/?

Sensory from face

22

What is the ventral posterolateral (VPL) of the thalamus assoc. w/?

Sensory from arms & legs

23

What is the lat. geniculate of the thalamus assoc w/?

Sensory from eyes

24

What is the med. geniculate of the thalamus assoc. w?

Sensory from ears

25

What is the parietal lobe of the cerebrum assoc. w/?

Localization "somesthetic cortex"
Brodman 1,2,3
Abstraction, problem solving

26

What is the occipital lobe of the cerebrum assoc. w/?

Sight

27

What is the temporal lobe of the cerebrum assoc. w/?

Sup lobe: Hearing
Middle lobe: Short term memory
Inf. lobe: Long term memory, smell

28

The foramen ovale becomes what and is located where?

Fossa ovalis; interatrial septum

29

The ductus arteriosus bypasses ____ & becomes ____?

Bypasses lung pulmonary trunk to arch of aorta; becomes ligamentum arteriosum

30

The ductus venosus bypasses ____ & becomes ____?

Bypasses the sinusoids of fetal liver; becomes ligamentum venosum

31

The umbilical vein becomes _____?

Ligatmentum teres (Round lig.)

32

The umbilical arteries become ____?

Medial umbilical ligaments

33

What is the Urachus?

Remnant of duct of allantois

34

Type of cells that gives rise to astrocytes & oligodendrocytes

Glioblast

35

Most numerous cell of CNS?

Astrocytes

36

Cells that form myelin in CNS?

Oligodendrocyte

37

Type of cell that lines CNS, ciliated, makes "leaky" barrier b/w CSF & CNS?

Ependymal

38

Microglia are AKA?

Gitterzellen

39

Type of cell that makes neurons?

Neuroblast

40

Commissural fibers connect what?

B/w 2 hemispheres

41

Association fibers connect what?

Different parts, same hemisphere

42

Projection fibers connect what?

Different parts, same hemisphere

43

The lateral ventricles are separated by what?

septum pellucidum

44

The foramen of Monroe (aka interventric foramen) connects what ventricles?

1&2 to 3rd ventricle

45

M/C location for a cerebral vascular accident?

Middle cerebral artery

46

Makes up 90% of cortex

Neocortex

47

Makes up 10% of cortex

Allocortex

48

This vesicle is mostly formed by the thalamus

Diencephalon

49

This produces CSF

Choroid Plexus

50

This reabsorbs CSF

Arachnoid granulations

51

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

52

What level does the spinal cord terminate?

L1 (L1/L2)

53

What is the resting membrane potential in muscle? neuron?

85-90mV; 65-70mV

54

Type of inhibitory neurotransmitter of spine? Brain?

Spine = Glycine; Brain = GABA

55

This allows for CSF exchange b/w the 3rd & 4th ventricles

Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius

56

What are the gray matter neuron cell types?

Purkinje (M/C)
Golgi II
Stellate
Basket
Granular

57

What are the cerebellar nuclei, from med. to lat., small to large?

Fastigial (Flowers)
Globus (Grow)
Emboliform (Every)
Dentate (Day)

58

This is located at the junction of the parietal, occipital, & temporal lobe. Involved w/ interpretation/sensory matching.

Wernicke's area

59

The striatum is composed of what?

Putamen & caudate

60

The lentiform is composed of what?

Globus pallidus and putamen

61

This is involved w/ hunger, thirst, temp. regulation, sex, rage, fear?

Hypothalamus

62

This is involved w/ balance, equilibrium, involuntary coordination, unconscious proprioception?

Cerebellum

63

Brain waves assoc. w/ quiet, meditation. Disappear in sleep.

Alpha waves

64

Brain waves assoc. w/ intense mental activity, REM sleep.

Beta waves

65

Brain waves assoc. w/ deep sleep or coma?

Delta waves

66

Brain waves that are normal in children, abnormal in adults (stress, suicidal)

Theta waves

67

What is the function of the corticospinal tract?

Precise & skilled voluntary movement

68

What is the function of the reticulospinal tract?

inhibit or facilitate voluntary movement

69

What is the function of the tectospinal tract?

Reflex postural movement to visual stimuli

70

What is the function of the rubrospinal tract?

facilitates flexors & inhibits extensors

71

What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?

Facilitates extensors & inhibits flexors

72

What is the alar plates (dorsal) assoc. w/, motor or sensory?

Sensory

73

What are basal plates (ventral) assoc. w/, motor or sensory?

Motor

74

What is the function of the lat. spinothalamic tract?

Pain & temp.

75

What are the functions of the ant. spinothalamic tract?

"Protopathic" is defensive to pain, temp
Crude light touch

76

What functions are the dorsal columns assoc. w/?

2-point discrimination, vibration, & conscious proprioception

77

What is the function of the Pos. spinocerebellar tract?

Unconscious proprioception

78

What is the function of the ant. spinocerebellar tract?

Unconscious proprioception

79

What function is the spinotectal tract (spino-quadrigeminal system of Mott) assoc. w/?

Spino visual reflexes

80

What is the function of the spinoreticular tract?

Levels of consciousness

81

The Great Cerebral vein of Galen drains into what sinus?

Straight sinus

82

The Superior Cerebral vein drains into what sinus?

Superior sagittal sinus

83

Damage to middle meningeal artery causes what type of hemorrhage?

Epidural hemorrhage

84

Damage to the venous system of the brain causes what type of hemorrhage?

Subdural hemorrhage

85

A beri aneurysm (circle of Willis) causes what type of hemorrhage?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

86

The Lateral Cord of the brachial plexus makes what branches?

Musculocutaneous
Median

87

The Posterior Cord of the brachial plexus makes what branches?

Axillary
Radial

88

The Medial Cord of the brachial plexus makes what branches?

Median
Ulnar

89

What is the smallest cranial nerve?

Trochlear

90

What is the largest cranial nerve?

Trigeminal

91

Which cranial nerves have parasympathetic fibers?

III, VII, IX, X (90% of body)

92

What foramen does the middle meningeal artery pass through?

Foramen spinosum

93

What foramen does the internal carotid artery pass through?

Foramen lacerum

94

Injury to the pterion can cause damage to what artery?

Middle meningeal artery

95

Info to the cortex travels via which peduncle?

Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

96

Info back to the cerebellum from the cortex travels via which peduncle?

Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

97

Info from the spinal cord/body travels to the cerebellum via which peduncle?

Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle

98

The midbrain connects to which peduncle?

Superior Cerebellar Peduncle

99

The pons connect to which peduncle?

Middle Cerebellar Peduncle

100

The medulla connects to which peduncle?

Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle

101

The posterior portion of the midbrain that contains the sup. & inf. colliculi is what?

Tectum

102

The ant. & pos. chambers of the eye are filled w/ what?

Aqueous humor

103

The post. cavity (lens to retina) of the eye is filled w/ what?

Vitreous humor

104

What makes aqueous humor in the eye?

Ciliary epithelium in ciliary bodies

105

M/C cause of blindness in the elderly?

Macular degeneration

106

This helps maintain static equilibrium in the ear

Utricle

107

This is the functional part of the utricle. Assoc. w/ linear acceleration (car or elevator)

Macula/Saccula

108

This is assoc. w/ detecting angular acceleration (roller coaster) in the ear

Semicircular canals

109

This is the dilation of the semicircular canals in the ear. Contains crystals.

Crista ampularis

110

What produces muscosa required to smell?

Bowman's gland

111

This type of joint is immovable

Synarthrosis

112

3 types of synarthrosis joints

Syndesmosis
Synostosis
Gomphosis

113

Interosseous membrane (tib/fib & radio-ulnar) is what type joint?

Syndesmosis

114

Sutures of skull are what type of joint?

Synostosis

115

Teeth are what type of joint?

Gomphosis

116

What is a slightly moveable joint?

Amphiarthrosis (Cartilaginous)

117

Epiphyseal plates, hyaline cartilage is what type of joint?

Synchondrosis

118

The IVD, pubic symphysis, & fibrocartilage are what types of joints?

Symphysis joints

119

2 types of amphiarthrosis joints

Synchondrosis
Symphysis

120

This is a freely movable joint

Diathrosis (synovial)

121

The cubital/humer-ulnar joint, mortis joint are what type of joint?

Hinge/Ginglymus

122

The atlas/axis, prox. radio-ulnar joint are what type of joint?

Pivot/Trochoid

123

Radiocarpal, MCP, TMJ, knee (modified) are examples of what type of joint?

Ovoid/Condlymus

124

The thumb & sternoclavicular joint are examples of what type of joint?

Saddle/sellar

125

Facets, AC joint, inter-carpal & -tarsal joints are examples of what type of joint?

Gliding

126

The coxafemoral joint & glenohumeral joint are examples of what type of joint?

Ball & socket/spheroidal

127

The perpendicular articulation of the ethmoid & vomer is what type of joint?

Schindylesis

128

Pathological fusion is known as?

Ankylosis

129

Surgical fusion is known as?

Arthrodesis

130

Congenital fusion is known as?

Coalition

131

Normal fusion in growth is known as?

Synchondrosis

132

This covers a nerve fiber

Endoneurium

133

This covers a nerve fascicle

Perineurium

134

This covers a peripheral nerve

Epineurium

135

How many primary ossification centers are there in the typical vertebrae?

3 primary (1 in body, 1 in each arch)

136

How many secondary ossification centers are in a typical vertebrae?

5 (1 in tip of SP, 2 in TVPs, 2 in annular ring epiphyses)
Lumbars have 2 extra for mamillary processes

137

Where the manubrium & sternum meet is known as what?

Angle of Louis

138

What part of the sacrum is analogous to the spinous process?

Median crest

139

The hyoid bone is at what spinal level?

C-3

140

The cornu of the thyroid is at what spinal level?

C-4

141

The body of the thyroid is at what spinal level?

C-5

142

The cricoid cartilage is at what spinal level?

C-6

143

The carotid tubercle is at what spinal level?

C-6

144

How many atypical vertebra are in adults?

9

145

What is the lowest spinal level the vertebral artery is found?

C-6

146

The joints of (von) Luska are found b/w what spinal levels?

C2-C6

147

Which artery traverse through the suboccipital triangle?

Vertebral artery

148

Which nerve traverses through the suboccipital triangle?

Suboccipital

149

Name the sup., lat. border of the suboccipital triangle

Sup. oblique capitus

150

Name the med. border of the suboccipital triangle

Rectus Capitis Posticus Major

151

Name the inf., lat. border of the suboccipital triangle

Inf. oblique capitus

152

What part of the cerebellum is assoc. w/ ant., general muscle tone?

Paleocerebellar

153

What part of the cerebellum is assoc. w/ coordination of skilled movements?

Neocerebellar

154

What part of the cerebellum is assoc. w/ equilibrium?

Archicerebellar (Flocculonodular)

155

What branches come from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus?

Musculocutaneous
Median (1/2)

156

What branches come from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus?

Axillary
Radial

157

What branches come from the medial cord of the brachial plexus?

Median (1/2)
Ulnar

158

What artery supplies blood to the anterior 2/3rd of the spinal cord?

Ant. spinal artery

159

What artery supplies blood to the pos. 1/3rd of the spinal cord?

Pos. spinal artery