Pathology Flashcards Preview

Part 1 Board Review > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (352):
1

Type of calcification where calcium infiltrates into normal tissue, e.g. hypervitaminosis D

Metastatic calcification

2

Type of calcification where calcium infiltrates into abnormal/damaged tissue, e.g. atherosclerosis or atheroma; damage to tunica intima

Dystrophic calcification

3

Caseous degeneration is seen with what disease?

Tuberculosis

4

"Cloudy swelling" is assoc. w/ what pathology?

Albuminous. Membrane injured which effects ionic transfer

5

"Coagulation"-type of degeneration is assoc. w/ what type of pathology?

Infarction (MI)

6

"Enzymatic"-type of degeneration is assoc. w/ what organ pathology?

Pancreas

7

Fatty degeneration in the liver is AKA?

Nutmeg liver

8

Fatty degeneration in the heart is AKA?

Tabby cat heart

9

What is the progression of fatty degeneration in the heart?

fatty dot --> Fatty streak --> Atheroma (fatty plaque) --> fibroatheroma (Fibrous tissue, calcium)

10

"Liquefaction" degeneration is assoc. w/ which system/organ?

CNS (Brain melts, tertiary syphilis, leprosy)
Skin (Infection)

11

Wallerian degeneration is assoc. w/ what organ?

Peripheral nerves. Degenerates to the next Node of Ranvier.
"Dying back phenomenon"

12

Zenker's (Waxy) degeneration is assoc. with what?

Hyaline. M/C in skeletal muscle
Muscle replaced w/ hyaline

13

What does Karyolysis mean?

Nuclear rupture

14

What does Karyorrhexis mean?

Nuclear swelling

15

What does pyknosis mean?

Nuclear Condensation

16

Absence of an organ (usually a paired organ)

Agenesis

17

Small remnants of an organ present (lack of development)

Aplasia

18

Organ smaller than normal & defective

hypoplasia

19

Decrease in size, typically from disuse. Seen most commonly in muscle

Atrophy

20

Increase in size

Hypertrophy

21

Increase in number of cells (e.g. pregnant uterus, goiter)

Hyperplasia

22

Changes from one cell type to another e.g pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium changing into stratified squamous in lungs of a smoker

Metaplasia

23

Change in size, shape, or function of a cell. Precancerous, but last stage that can reverse to normal

Dysplasia

24

Complete disorganization of a cell (cancer) e.g. squamous cell carcinoma

Anaplasia

25

Type I collagen is found where?

Bone
Muscle
Tendons
Ligaments

26

Type II collagen is found where?

Disc (specifically nucleus pulposis)

27

Type III collagen ("reticular collagen") is found where?

Spleen
Lymph nodes
Seen in early wound healing

28

Type IV collagen is found where?

Basement membrane

29

Pneumoconoisis that is caused by silica from sand, rock, or glass. AKA "Rocky Quarry disease"

Silicosis

30

Pneumoconoisis that leads to mesothelioma (Malignant tumor)

Asbestosis

31

Pneumoconoisis caused by an endemic fungus around the Mississippi or Ohio Valleys. AKA "Ohio Valley Fever" or "Mississippi Valley Fever"

Histomycosis/Histoplasmosis

32

Pneumoconoisis caused by endemic fungus in deserts of Southwest. AKA "San Joaquin Valley fever" or just "Valley Fever"

Coccidiomycosis

33

Pneumoconoisis caused by endemic fungus on Eastern seaboard

Blastomycosis

34

Sputum analysis that yields "Curschmann's Spirals" or Charcot Leyden crystals" is assoc. w/ what pathology?

Asthma

35

This affects chloride channels. Affects GI & respiratory mucus linings & exocrine secretions.

Cystic fibrosis

36

What is usually the first sign of cystic fibrosis?

"Sweat Test" Mother notices salty taste on baby. "Salty baby syndrome"

37

A person w/ cystic fibrosis is susceptible to what organism?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

38

Iron in lungs due to bleeding is known as what?

Hemosiderosis

39

What pathology is honeycomb lung assoc. w/?

Pulmonary fibrosis

40

Caseous necrosis in lung.
Gohn complex/lesions
Granulomas
Epithelioid Histiocytes

Tuberculosis

41

Tuberculosis is known as what when it spreads to the spine?

Pott's disease

42

What is a vertebra called that collapses from TB?

Gibbus deformity

43

This is vasculitis of the lung & kidney

Wegener's granulomatosis

44

This is caused by an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

Emphysema

45

This is decreased tubular excretion of nitrogen which increases nitrogen in the blood

Azotemia

46

This is M/C caused by prostate problems or ureter stones

Hydronephrosis

47

This is AKA nephrolithiasis. Pain starts in back & radiates to the flanks

Kidney stones

48

What is the M/C compound in kidney stones?

calcium oxalates

49

Once a kidney stone has entered the ureter, where does the pain localize?

In the groin

50

RBCs & small amounts of protein in the urine (e.g. acute glomerulonephritis) are assoc. w/ this syndrome

Nephritic syndrome

51

This syndrome is AKA Pre-ecclampsia or HEP (HTN, Edema, Proteinurea (massive))

Nephrotic syndrome

52

HEP (HTN, edema, proteinurea) combined w/ convulsions & coma is known as what?

Ecclampsia

53

What is the appearance of a polycystic kidney?

Moth eaten

54

Acute tubular necrosis can cause what?

Shock

55

This is AKA nephroblastoma. Mixed tumor of kidney in children (malignant)

Wilm's (disease/tumor (?))

56

This is caused by decreased cortisol levels. Symptoms included hypoadrenia, low blood pressure, hyperpigmentation d/t excess ACTH which increases melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), fatigue

Addison's

57

Caused by excess aldosterone (Zona Glomerulosa). Symptoms include HTN & water retention

Conn's

58

Caused by excess cortisol (Zona Fasciculata). Symptoms include hyperadrenia, moon faces, buffalo hump, purple striae, central obesity

Cushing's

59

Hyperplasia of thyroid cells due to lack of iodine

Goiter

60

Hyperthyroidism that causes exophthalmoses (bulging eyes), heat intolerance, weight loss, rapid heart rate, hair loss

Graves Disease

61

Autoimmune disease that causes hyperthyroidism

Hashimotos

62

This causes hypothyroidism. Manifests as cretinism in the child. Symptoms include cold intolerance, weight gain, slower HR, loss of lat. 1/3 of eyebrows, slow mental faculties (memory, common sense)

Myxedema

63

This type of cancer is assoc. w/ HPV 16 virus

Cervical cancer

64

This can sometimes cause testicular cancer

Cryptochism

65

Where is the M/C site for endometriosis to occur?

Ovary

66

This is when the urethra exits on the dorsal surface of the penis

Epispadias

67

This is when the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis

Hypospadias

68

What are two indications of increased HcG levels?

Pregnancy
Hydatidiform mole (non-viable embryo that has implanted)

69

This is a tumor of smooth muscle such as fibroids in the uterus

Leiomyoma

70

This disease causes anovulation, obesity, & hirsutism (excess hair on body & face)

Polycystic ovary disease

71

This is a cancer of the testes. M/C cause of testicular cancer, mesnechymal/stem cells

Seminoma

72

What are the 5 stages of congenital syphilis?

1. Hutchinson's teeth - notched permanent upper incisors
2. Rhagades - Fissures or crack at edge of mouth
3. Saddle nose deformity - bridge of nose flattened
4. Sabre blade tibia
5. Interstitial keratitis - produces visual changes

73

What are the 3 stages of acquired syphilis?

Primary - Hard, singular, painless, nodule (chancre) on perineum
Secondary - Maculopapular rash & condylomata lata (flat warts on vulva)
Tertiary - Tabes dorsalis, aortic aneurysm, gummas inclusion body in CNS

74

What is the pupil sign assoc. w/ syphilis?

Argyll Robertson pupil AKA Prostitute's Pupil - doesn't react to light, but constricts on accommodation

75

Tonic pupil dilation (Mydriasis) due to injury to CN III Edinger Westphal nucleus is called what?

Adie's pupil

76

Tonic pupil constriction due to injury to sympathetic cervical ganglia is called what?

Miosis

77

What organism causes Syphilis?

Treponema pallidum

78

Haemophilus ducreyi (gram - coccobacillus) causes what kind of lesion?

Soft, painful, Chancroid

79

This venereal disease is similar to Trichimonas, except bacterial

Gardnerella vaginalis

80

This venereal disease causes burning urination, pus in urine, may produce arthritis (M/C in knee). "Coffee bean shaped" organism on microscopy

Gonorrhea (gram - diplococcus)

81

This venereal disease produces rectal strictures & is diagnosed w/ a Frei test

Chlamydia (Lymphogranuloma venereum)

82

This venereal disease causes purulent vaginal discharge that is green, frothy, & foul smelling. Caused by a protozoan.

Trichimonas

83

This is a spasm of lower esophageal sphincter. Causes megaesophagus of upper esophagus. Lack of motility due to absence of myenteric plexus

Achalasia

84

Metaplasia of esophageal cells into stomach cells, caused by GERD

Barrett's esophagus

85

This is occlusion of hepatic veins. Assoc w/ a triad of abdominal pain, ascites, & hepatomegaly. Acute symptoms are rapid, severe, upper abdominal pain, jaundice, heptomegaly, increased liver enzymes, & eventual encephalopathy

Budd-Chiari

86

Caused by intolerance to gluten. Loss of villi, therefore loss of absorption

Celiac disease AKA Non-tropical sprue

87

Inflammation of gallbladder. M/C cause of gallstones

Cholecystitis

88

Gallstones are AKA?

Cholelithiasis

89

Seen in young people. Affects sm. intestines, cecum, & ascending colon. Skip lesions or cobblestone appearance. No bloody diarrhea. Autoimmune. Leads to dehydration b/c water isn't getting reabsorbed in sm. intestines.

Crohn's AKA Regional ileitis AKA Distal ileitis AKA Regional enteritis

90

Outpouching in the intestines. Usually lower L quadrant

Diverticula

91

Difficulty swallowing

Dysphagia

92

M/C cause of death in children world wide d/t dehydration from diarrhea

Enteritis

93

M/C cause of frank, red blood in the stool

Hemorrhoids

94

Congenital megacolon. Absence of myenteric plexus (Parasympathetic plexus)

Hirschbrung's

95

Telescoping of intestine onto itself, can be caused by rotovirus vaccine

Intussusception

96

Spastic colon, distention, pain, diarrhea, stress related

Irritable bowel

97

Hematemesis (Vomiting of blood) d/t alcoholism. Laceration of esophagus & prox. stomach

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

98

Outpouching of distal ileum

Meckel's diverticulum

99

Polyposis characterized by polyps in the entire GI tract

Peutzjegher's

100

Iron deficiency anemia, cheilosis, esophageal webbing & glossitis

Plummer Vinson syndrome

101

Infant projectile vomiting. In a newborn

Pyloric stenosis

102

Anatomically shortened esophagus

Sliding hiatal hernia

103

Fat in stool. Caused by problem w/ gall bladder

Steatosis

104

AKA Toxic megacolon. Pathological intestinal changes, ulcers, bloody diarrhea, affects L side of abdomen. "Lead pipe rigidity". Starts at the colon & moves distally

Ulcerative colitis

105

Twisting of an organ around its long axis

Volvulus

106

Outpouching of the esophagus

Zenker's diverticulum

107

Decreased ADH d/t pos. pituitary problem. Causes dehydration

Diabetes insipidus

108

Decreased production of insulin by the beta cells of pancreas (Islets of Langerhans). 1st seen in the eyes. M/C die from heart disease or renal failure. Produces polydypsia (increase thirst), polyurea (increase urination), & polyphagia (increase hunger)

Diabetes Mellitus

109

Iron in organs & skin. AKA Bronze diabetes

Hemochromatosis

110

Protein malnutrition

Kwashiorkor

111

Calorie malnutrition, includes protein

Marasmus

112

Inborn error of copper metabolism. Kayser Fleisher rings (copper deposits in eye). Hepatolenticular degeneration.

Wilson's disease

113

Ant. horn & corticospinal tracts affected w/ no sensory loss. Motor only. Lower motor neuron in upper extremities & upper motor neuron in lower. It's progressive

ALS AKA Lou Gherig's disease

114

Progressive severe atrophy of the cerebral cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles, decrease in Ach. #1 cause of dementia

Alzheimer's

115

Cerebellar tonsils herniate, specifically the vermis

Type I Arnold Chiari

116

Cerebellar tonsil herniation w/ meningiomyelocele in lumbar spine

Type II Arnold Chiari

117

M/C brain tumors w/ the best prognosis. In CNS

Astrocytoma, Type I & II

118

M/C brain tumor in CNS

Glioma

119

Brain tumor w/ the worst prognosis

Glioblastoma multiform (Type IV astrocytoma)

120

M/C brain tumor seen in cerebellar vermis in children. M/C cerebellar tumor

Medulloblastoma

121

Slowest growing brain tumor. Affects cerebrum

Oligodendroglioma

122

Acoustic neuroma. Onion bulb tumor. M/C cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss

Schwannoma

123

Lesions of sclerosis of the spinocerebellar tract (neurofibrillary tangles). Assoc. w/ chromosome 9

Friedreich's Ataxia

124

AKA post-infectious polyradiculopathy. M/C seen after a recent flu or vaccination. Peripheral demyelinating disease. Areflexia & ascending paralysis. Fatal if it hits the diaphragm

Guillian-Barre

125

Interruption of cervical sympathetics (e.g. trauma, pancoast tumor). Symptoms include ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis, enophthalmosis

Horner's syndrome

126

AKA Hansen's disease. Liquefactive necrosis. Skin damage & destruction of sensory nerves

Leprosy

127

Central demyelinization & plaquing of the spinal cord & brain. Charcot's triad (SIN): scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus. Characterized by exacerbations & remissions. Effects distal muscles & causes visual disturbances. Affects corticospinal tracts

Multiple sclerosis

128

Formation of antibodies that block the Ach receptors at the myoneural junction. Thymic enlargement (Thymoma). Causes progressive weakness & fatigue. First starts in the ocular muscles, gets worse at the end of day. Jaw is tight & sore. Autoimmune, females age 20-40

Myasthenia Gravis

129

AKA Von Recklinghausen's disease. Cafe au Lait spots, "Coast of California appearance

Neurofibromatosis

130

Schwann cell tumor is AKA?

Onion bulb tumor

131

Problem w/ dopamine in basal ganglia. Inclusion bodies (Lewy bodies). Masked faces, stopped posture, resting tremor, & festinating/shuffling gait. Cogwheel rigidity. Substantia nigra of mesencephalon effected

Parkinson's AKA Paralysis agitans

132

AKA combined systems disease. Dorsal columns & corticospinal tract affected. Results from long term pernicious anemia (decreased intrinsic factor) or decreased B12

PLS (Posterolateral sclerosis)

133

It affects the ant. horn, produces LMNL (lower motor neuron ?). Effects brainstem, then cranial nerves affected, possibly breathing apparatus as well

Poliomyelitis

134

Cyst like formation from the central canal of the spinal cord that leads to loss of pain & temp. & signs of an upper motor neuron lesion. Cape-like distribution of pins & needles sensation. Caused by syrinx, a central dilation of the spinal cord. Loss of pain & temp. bilaterally

Syringomyelia

135

Alcoholic psychosis w/ dementia. Depletion of thiamine (B1) due to severe alcoholism

Wernicke-Korsakoff

136

Tumor of glandular tissue

Adenoma

137

Benign bone tumor. Metaphyseal/diaphyseal. Eccentric. AKA Blister of Bone

Aneurismal Bone Cyst

138

Tumors that are encapsulated, have a short zone of transition and are asymptomatic tend to be malignant or benign?

Benign

139

Tumor-shaped radiolucency d/t loss of bone density from hyperparathyroidism. (PTH)

Brown's tumor

140

Starry sky appearance. Jaw mass. Central African child. Epstein Barr virus

Burkett's lymphoma

141

Wasting away

Cachexia

142

Cancer of the epithelial tissue, usually spread by lymph system

Carcinoma

143

Cancer that has not invaded the basement membrane

Carcinoma in situ

144

Cancer assoc. w/ HPV 16 virus

Cervical cancer

145

Benign bone tumor found in <20yoa. Epiphyseal/metaphyseal

Chondroblastoma

146

Benign tumor of cartilage

Chondroma

147

Cacner that is M/C'ly seen in sacrum. Crosses joints

Chordoma

148

Type of cancer M/C'ly found in US

Colorectal cancer

149

Absence of one or both testicles in scrotum (failure of descent of the testes. Can cause testicular cancer

Cryptorchidism

150

Benign hand tumor. Stippled calcification.

Enchondroma AKA Ollier's disease

151

Syndrome assoc. w/ Enchondromatosis, soft tissue swelling, & bone deformity

Maffuci's syndrome

152

Multi-laminated (onion skin appearence) periosteal reaction. Cortical saurcerization. Children 10-25. Moth-eaten appearance in medulla that mimics osteomyelitis

Ewing's Sarcoma

153

M/C breast tumor. Assoc. w/ estrogens

Fibroadenoma of breast

154

Myxomatous tissue. Spindled & polyhedral cells

Fibroma

155

Benign tumor w/ ground glass appearance. Cafe au lait "Coast of Maine" appearance w/ early puberty (Albright's disease). Monostotic form is assoc. w/ Rind sign/Rind of sclerosis

Fibrous dysplasia

156

Tumor of osteoclasts. Osteoclastoma. M/C in knee. Quasi-malignant. Age 20-40, epiphyseal/metaphyseal

Giant cell tumor

157

Benign tumor of blood vessels, M/C'ly found in spine

Hemangioma

158

M/C primary liver cancer.

Hepatocellular liver cancer AKA Hepatoma

159

AKA Hans-Schuller-Christian disease AKA Histolytic granuloma AKA Eosinophilic Granuloma. Lipid accumulates --> vertebra plana

Histiocytosis X

160

Cancer of the stomach that metastasizes to ovaries. Signet ring cell tumor

Krukenberg's

161

Tumor of sm. muscle. Fibroids in uterus

Leiomyoma

162

White patch on oral mucosa from tobacco. Can't be wiped off (precancerous)

Leukoplakia

163

Fatty tumor

Lipoma

164

M/C lung cancer w/ non-smokers. Best prognosis.

Adenocarcinoma

165

Lung cancer w/ the worst prognosis.

Oat cell & small cell

166

M/C lung cancer in smokers

Squamous cell

167

Metastasis from lung M/C'ly goes to what organ?

Brain

168

Tumors that are non-encapsulated, have a long zone of transition, cause pain at night, & weight loss are often malignant or benign?

Malignant

169

M/C form of cancer in bones

Metastasis

170

Tumor b/w heads of 3-4 metatarsals

Morton's neuroma

171

M/C primary bone malignancy in adults. Amyloid buildup. Inclusion bodies known as Russell bodies. X-rays show "punched-out" lesions, raindrop skull

Multiple myeloma AKA plasma cell leukemia/sarcoma

172

M/C benign cardiac tumor & M/C cardiac tumor

Myxoma

173

Tumor M/C'ly seen in neural arch b/w ages 10-30

Osteoblastoma

174

M/C benign tumor of extremities

Osteochondroma

175

What are the 2 types of osteochondroma?

Sessile - "Bump in the bone"
Pedunculated - Cartilaginous cap appearance, coathanger's exostosis, mushroom projection

176

What is multiple osteochondromas AKA?

Hereditary Multiple Exostosis

177

Tumor where the pain is worse at night & is relieved by aspirin. Affects 15-25 yoa. Radiolucent nidus w/ reactive sclerosis

Osteoid osteoma

178

M/C benign tumor of the skull. M/C in frontal sinus (frontal bone)

Osteoma

179

Sequestrum, involucrum, cloaca. M/C caused by Staph. aureus

Osteomyelitis (Brodie's Abscess if chronic)

180

M/C primary bone cancer in children (10-30)

Osteosarcoma

181

This is assoc. w/ warts

Papilloma

182

Neuroblastoma, benign tumor of adrenal medulla. Causes episodic HTN

Pheochromocytoma

183

Assoc. w/ anovulation, obesity, hirsutism

Polycystic ovary disease

184

Tumor of striated muscle or heart muscle

Rhabdomyoma

185

Cancer of connective tissue, usually spread by vascular system

Sarcoma

186

Cancer of testes, M/C cause of testicular cancer, mesenchymal/stem cells

Seminoma

187

Benign bone tumor located in the metaphyseal/diaphyseal region. Concentric. Assoc w/ fallen fragment sign. Age affected <20. Found in long bones

Simple/Unicameral Bone Cyst

188

Characteristics of stomach cancer

M/C in lesser curvatures
"Leather-bottle" shaped

189

Tumor of all 3 germinal layers

Teratoma

190

Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes d/t metastasis, usually GI tract, usually L side supraclavicular lymph nodes

Virchow's nodes

191

"Nephroblastoma" Mixed tumor of kidney in children

Wilm's tumor

192

Yellow tumor of connective tissue

Xanthoma

193

Absence of oxygen

Anoxia

194

Deficiency of oxygen

Hypoxia

195

Pathogens or toxins in the blood, can include bacteremia

Septicemia

196

Bacteria in the blood

Bacteremia

197

Movement of WBCs along concentration gradient of tissue damage byproducts

Chemotaxis

198

WBCs lining the damaged vessels (adhesions of leukocytes to endothelium)

Pavementing/margination

199

Neutrophils & monocytes squeeze through the walls of blood vessels towards site of damaged tissue or infection

Diapedesis AKA Leukocyte extravasation

200

Summary of clot formation

Fibrinogen into fibrin via thromboplastin (requires Vit. K & Calcium in cascade)

201

Platelet deposition

Thrombus

202

Foreign body in the blood travels

Embolus

203

Emboli in lung is M/C from what location?

Lower extremity

204

Fluid & high protein (damaged capillary wall)

Exudate

205

Fluid & low protein (Normal capillary wall)

Transudate

206

5 stages of inflammation

1. Injury/wound - tissue is damaged
2. Vasoconstriction - sympathetic reaction
3. Vasodilation - bring more blood to injured site
4. Swelling/Edema - Cells move into damaged area (Chemotaxis)
5. Healing - mast cells form heparin & serotonin

207

Substances that increase inflammation?

Bradykinin (vasodilation)
Histamine (vasodilation)
Leukotrienes
Prostaglandins
Substance P

208

Substances that decrease inflammation

Enkephalins/endorphins (pain control)
NSAIDS (COX inhibitors)
Steroids (Phospholipase A2 inhibitor)

209

These cells become mast cells & make histaimine, bradykinin, serotonin, & heparin

Basophils

210

These cells transform into plasma cells --> make antibodies

B-lymphocytes

211

Types of granulocytes

Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

212

Types of agranulocytes

Lymphocytes
Monocytes

213

What is a macrophage called in the liver?

Kupffer cell

214

What is a macrophage called in the lung?

dust cell

215

What is a macrophage called in the brain?

Microglia

216

What is a macrophage called in the skin?

Langerhan cell

217

What are types of natural killers cells?

Monocytes
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

218

Where do T-lymphocytes mature?

Thymus

219

T-helper cells are assoc. w/ what cells and what do they do?

CD4 cells; activate B cells

220

T-killer cells are assoc. w/ what cells and what do they do?

CD8; Cytotoxic cells. Destroys cancer. Kills foreign agents, transplant rejections

221

What do T-suppressor cells do?

Suppress immune system. Slows antibody production

222

These WBCs make 60% of WBC count. Increase in acute bacterial infections & acute inflammation

Neutrophils

223

These WBCs make up 30% of WBC count. Increase in viral conditions & chronic inflammation

Lymphocytes

224

These WBCs make up 5-8% WBC count. Assoc. w/ chronic conditions. Changes into phagocytes at tissue level

Monocytes

225

These WBCs make up 2-4% of WBC count. Increase in parasites & allergies

Eosinophils

226

These WBCs make up 0-.5% of WBC count. Like mast cells, produce heparin & histamine. Increase conditions that cause histamine release

Basophiles

227

Natural immunity involves what 4 types of cells?

Natural killer cells
Mast cells
Basophils
Macrophage

228

This is a decrease in B-cells. Decreased IgG. M/C primary immunodeficiency at birth. X-linked

Bruton's Agammaglobulinnemia

229

Hypoplasia of thymus. Primary T-cell deficiency at birth

DiGeorge's

230

Starry sky appearance. Central Africa (young child). Jaw swelling

Burkett's lymphoma

231

Pel Epstein fever. Biopsy shows Sternberg cells. Enlarged lymph nodes & heptaosplenomegaly

Hodgkin's

232

Leukemia of bone marrow. Affects plasma cells. Age 50+. Example of non-Hodkins lymphoma.

Multiple Myeloma

233

Newborn w/o proper B or T cells. Problem w/ bone marrow. In adult, M/C due to aplastic anemia. Possibly from benzene poisoning.

Severe combined immune deficiency

234

Type of Hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 8 deficiency. Causes decrease in platelet adhesion.

Hemophilia A (Von Willibrand disease)

235

Type of hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 9. X-chromosome. Females only carriers.

Christmas Factor disease (Christmas disease in males)

236

Hemophilia assoc w/ factor number 10. (Factor name)

Stuart factor

237

Mild type of hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 11

Hemophilia C

238

Name of clotting factor 12

Hageman Factor

239

Decreased RBCs & WBCs in the blood. Caused by benzene poisoning. Assoc. w/ degeneration of bone marrow.

Aplastic anemia

240

Type of anemia assoc. w/ chronic blood loss (menses)

Iron deficiency (Microcytic, hypochromic)

241

Type of anemia assoc. w/ lack of intrinsic factor. Gastritis can be a cause

Pernicious

242

Type of anemia assoc. w/ pregnancy. Leads to spina bifida occulta

Folic acid anemia (Megaloblastic anemia)

243

Type of anemia seen in vegetarians

B-12 anemia (macrocytic, hypochromic)

244

Hemorrhage causes what kind of anemia?

normochromic/normocytic

245

Anemia d/t hemolytic breakdown can be caused by what?

Sickle cell
Malaria

246

This is AKA Cooley's Anemia or Mediterranean Anemia. Has "hair on end" appearance on X-ray

Thalassemia Major

247

This is caused by a Rh- mother & Rh+ father leading to Rh+ baby. Type II cytotoxic

Erythroblastosis fetalis

248

Decreased RBCs, WBCs, & platelets in the blood

Pancytopenia

249

Increased RBCs

Polycythemia

250

Primary polycythemia is AKA?

Polycythemia Rubra Vera (pathological)

251

Secondary polycythemia is AKA?

Relative Polycythemia (normal response to high altitudes)

252

Decreased platelets in blood

Thrombocytopenia

253

Type of aneurysm that occurs in the circle of Willis. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Berry Aneurysm

254

Aneurysm caused by longitudinal tearing away of the aorta

Dissecting aneurysm

255

Aneurysm w/ symptoms of sudden low back pain, hypovolemic shock, thready pulse, "Curvilinear calcification", "Fusiform shape"

Abdominal aorta aneurysm

256

Deposition of fatty plaques (atheroma). Form of ateriosclerosis. Get irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large & medium sized arteries, causing narrowing of arterial lumens.

Atherosclerosis

257

AKA Thromboangitis obliterans. Lower extremity, males w/ history of smokin. Intermittent claudication = cramping w/ exertion

Buerger's

258

Fluid in pericardial space. Prevents proper ventricular filling.

Cardiac Tamponade

259

Narrowing of aorta distal to the L subclavian. Produces HTN in upper extremities & Hypotension in lower extremities

Coarctation of aorta (congential)

260

Tunica media of medium-sized arteries calcified. In smokers & diabetics

Monkeberg's sclerosis

261

Coronoary artery vasospasm

Prinzmetal's angina

262

Vasospasm of arteries. Maybe primary or secondary to other collagen diseases such as Lupus. Found in hands & feet. Produce triphasic color change, from pallor(white) to cyanosis (blue) to rubor (red). Brought on by cold or emotion. Can lead to dry gangrene. Typically in upper extremities of females w/ a history of smoking.

Raynaud's

263

Half moon shaped RBC. "H-shaped vertebra"

Sickle Cell anemia

264

Granulomatous inflammation of the aortic arch

Takayasu arteritis AKA Pulseless disease

265

Affects temporal arteries. Assoc. w/ long-standing HTN. If affects opthalmic artery, can lead to blindness. Increased ESR. Best way to diagnose is by biopsy

Temporal arteritis AKA Giant Cell arteritis

266

what are the 4 components of the tetralogy of Fallot?

Dextrorotation of aorta
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Interventricular septal defect
Pulmonic stenosis

267

Due to tooth extraction. Strep infection causing Aschoff bodies from Rheumatic fever. Mitral valve affected.

Valvular lesions

268

M/C leukemia seen in children

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

269

M/C acute leukemia in adults but can be seen at any age. Worst prognosis.

Acute myeloblastic leukemia

270

M/C chronic leukemia in adults.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

271

Leukemia seen in young adulthood. Increased granulocytets. "Philadelphia chromosome"

Chronic myelocytic leukemia

272

M/C form of genetic dwarfism. Growth plates affected. Failure of normal epiphyseal cartilage formation. X-ray shows "Bullet vertebra" "Trident hand"

Achondroplasia

273

Accumulation of homogentisic acid, blue-black deposits in cartilage, ears, nose, & cheeks. Causes ochronsis (calcification of discs in spine). Urine turns black on standing collection. Can get increase of tyrosine. Homogentisic acid is intermediate phenylalanine & tyrosine metabolism

Alkaptonuria

274

Hereditary progressive peroneal muscle atrophy. Affects tibalis anterior also.

Charcot Marie Tooth

275

trisomy 21, male or female. Flat, hypoplastic face. Tranverse palmar crease (Simian crease) Transposition w/ chromosome 14

Down's syndrome

276

Trisomy 18. Retardation

Edward's

277

Hereditary onset age 30-50 yoa. Basal ganglion affected; atrophy of caudate. On chromosome #4. Decrease in GABA. Produces dementia & death.

Huntington's chorea

278

Arachnodactyly (spider-like fingers), sublucation or dislocation of the lens of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurysms, tall stature

Marfan's

279

Defect in type I collagen. Blue sclera & brittle bones

Osteogenesis imperfecta

280

Can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine d/t phenylalanine hydroxylase. Retardation can be controlled by diet if caught early

Phenylketonuria

281

Lacks glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Excess glycogen stored in liver, can't break down. Glycogen storage disease

Von Gierke's

282

"Cat's cry" Characteristic cry of newborn. Disappears usually by age 1-2

Cri du Chat

283

Lipodystrophy assoc w/ excess glucocerebrosides in brain, liver, & spleen

Gaucher's

284

Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ excess galactocerebrosides in white matter

Krabbe's

285

Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ increase in sphingomyelin. A sphingomyelinase deficiency

Niemann Pick's

286

Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ increase gangliosides in brain. Glycosphingolipid. Hexosaminidase A deficiency. Cherry red spots on the macula. Infant death. M/C in Ashkenasi Jews

Tay Sach's

287

Musuclar dystrophy. Boys age 3-7. Pseudohypertrophy of calves. Muscle replace by fat. Recessive X-linked. Increased CPK. Gower's maneuver. Waddling gait. Proximal muscles affected.

Duchene's Muscular dystrophy

288

Autosomal dominant form of muscular dystrophy in adults. Affects face, scapula, upper arms

Fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy

289

Autosomal class of muscular dystrophy. Effects hip & shoulders

Limbgirdle dystrophy

290

Type of muscular dystrophy where you can't relax muscle

Myotonic dystrophy

291

M/C form of mild mental retardation caused by fragile site at XQ27

Fragile X

292

47XXY karotype, tall male, low IQ, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, sterile

Kleinfelter's

293

45XO Karyotype, female, short, webbed neck, amenorrhea, lacks female secondary characteristics

Turner's

294

AKA Forrestier's disease. Typically affects males 50+. Trouble swallowing d/t calcification of ALL. Assoc. w/ diabetes mellitus, increased appetite, thirst, urination

DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis)

295

Calcium or bone w/i muscle d/t trauma. M/C in quads or biceps. If in adductors, known as Prussian's disease. Example of metaplasia

Myossitis Ossificans

296

AKA Charcot Joint. M/C location is foot/ankle, #2 is knee. Causes: diabetes, corticosteroids, syringomyelia, tabes dorsalis, alcoholic neuropath, leprosy

Neuropathic joint AKA Neurogenic joint AKA Neurotrophic joint

297

6 D's assoc. w/ Neurotrophic joint

Destruction
Debris of bone
Density increase
Dislocation
Disorganization
Distension

298

AKA Marble bone disease or Albers Schonbergs disease. Xray sign - Bone w/i a Bone (early stage), Sandwich vertebra (late stage). Pts die by age 20-30 from hepatosplenomegaly & anemia

Osteopetrosis

299

Affects men over 50, increase hat size, enlargement/deformity of bone, cortical thickening. Pathological cell is the osteoclastic cell. Labs show increase alkaline phosphatase, increased urinary hydroxyproline, normal calcium & phosphorus

Pagets AKA Osteitis Deformans

300

4 radiological stages assoc w/ Pagets

1. Lytic Phase (osteoclastic activity)
2. Mixed phase (combine lytic & blastic)
3. Blastic phase (osteoblastic)
4. Malignant degeneration (osteosarcoma)

301

This is AKA Progressive systemic sclerosis. Labs show ANA, FANA, seropositive for RA. Xray shows resorption of distal tufts

Scleroderma

302

What are the CREST signs assoc w/ Scleroderma?

Calcinosis Cutis
Raynaud's phenomenon
Esophageal problems
Sclerodactely
Telangectasis (dilation of superficial blood vessels)

303

dead necrotic center of bone infection

Sequestrum

304

New bone formation assoc w/ bone infection/osteomyelitis

Involucrum

305

Opening from bone to the skin. Seen w/ Brodie's abscess. This is opening in Involucrum. Can get Marjolins ulcer which is a squamous cell carcinoma

Cloaca

306

Enzyme that is elevated in prostatic cancer which has ruptured the prostate capsule

Acid phosphatase

307

Enzyme that is elevated in liver & bone conditions

Alkaline phosphatase

308

Build up of lipofuscin in organs. "Lipofuscin granules are old age pigments"

Brown Atrophy

309

#1 mineral deficiency in the US

Calcium

310

#1 mineral deficiency in the world

Iron

311

AKA Marie Stumpell's disease. Seronegative arthritides. HLA B27+. Autoimmune, inflammatory. Affects SI joints. Causes morning LBP & stiffness. Moves up the spine. Starts age 15-35 males. Can cause abdominal aortic aneurysm & iritis

Ankylosing Spondylitis

312

Coal miners lung w/ RA nodules

Caplan's Syndrome

313

Chronic RA w/ splenomegaly

Felty's syndrome

314

Type of arthritis that usually affects the knee.

Gonococcal

315

Uric acid (tophi - crystal deposits in tissues) in blood. In big toe = podagra. M/C cause is diet increase purines; red wine & meat, aged cheese. Labs show increased ESR, increased uric acid. Xray shows it destroys from outside in, juxtaarticular erosions, overhanging edge sign

Gouty arthritis

316

Usually affects the knee. Causes enlarged intercondylar notch

Hemophilia

317

Unilateral distribution in weight bearing joints. Subchondral sclerosis, osteophytes. Heberden's nodes (DIP) & Bouchard's (PIP) M/C location is hip then knee. M/C type of arthritis

OA/DJD

318

Seronegative arthritide. HLA B27+. Xray shows periarticular erosions, mouse ear erosions, pencil in cup deformities, Ray's sign. Symptoms include cocktail sausage digits, silver scales, pitted nails, pull off a scale & it bleeds (Auspitz sign)

Psoriatic Arthritis

319

Seronegative arthritide. HLA B27+. Caused by Chlamydia. Symptoms include white pus, Conjunctivits/Uveitis (can't see), Urethritis (Can't pee), Arthritis (can't dance w/ me), heel spur & plantar fasciitis (Lover's heel)

Reiter's AKA reactive arthritis AKA venereal arthritis

320

Inflammatory condition, usually begins in hands. Symmetrical distribution. Ulnar deviation of wrist. Ankylosis of spine. Pannus formation (hypertrophy of synovium of joint) over the joints. Haygarth's nodes (MCP) & Bouchard's nodes (PIP). Juxtaarticular osteoporosis, rat bite, or marginal erosions. Seropositive. Boutonniere & Swan neck deformities. Bilateral symmetrical involvement

RA

321

Types of seronegative arthritis. All are HLA B27 positive. All RA latex negative.

"PEAR"
Psoriatic
Enteropathic arthropathy
Ankylosing spondylitis
Reiter's syndrome

322

Types of seronegative arthritis. All are RA latex positive

RSSS
Rheumatoid arthritis
Sjogren's
Scleraderma
Systemic Lupus Erthematosis

323

Dry eyes (xeropthalmia), Dry mouth (xerostomia), Seropositive for RA latex

Sjogren's

324

JRA is AKA?

Still's disease

325

Photosensitivity, Libman Sach's endocarditis, autoimmune disease, antibodies against DNA. Use the ANA or FANA test. Butterfly rash (Malar rash)

Systemic Lupus Erythematosis

326

Death of bone d/t lack of blood. M/C cause is trauma. Also caused by corticosteroids

Avascular necrosis AKA osteonecrosis

327

AVN of the spine

Sheuermann's

328

AVN of the lunate

Keinboch's

329

AVN of the hip

Legge Calve Perthe's

330

AVN of the navicular

Kohler's

331

AVN of the scaphoid

Priesser's

332

M/C fx of the wrist. Fx of distal radius w/ pos. displacement. "Dinner fork deformity"

Colles Fx

333

Avulsion of tibial tuberosity of knee in young athletic children

Osgood Schlatter's AKA Tibial Apophysitis

334

Fx of distal radius w/ ant. displacement. "Garden Spade Deformity"

Smith's Fx AKA Reverse Colles

335

"Blue Bloaters" Chronic cough, sputum blood-streaked, wheezing, dyspnea

Chronic Bronchitis

336

"Pink Puffer" Enlargement of airspaces. Primary cause is smoking. Barrel-chested

Emphysema

337

"Dead lung" irreversible, focal bronchial dilation w/ infection & necrosis of tissue

Bronchiectasis

338

Lung & bone (lytic, typically in skull), exophthalmosis & diabetes insipidus

Hand-Schuller Christian syndrome

339

Benign prostate hypertrophy typically affects which lobe of the prostate?

Lateral lobe

340

Prostate cancer is usually found in which lobe of the prostate?

Posterior lobe

341

Inflammation of the glans penis & prepuce

Balanitis

342

Testicular inflammation

Orchitis

343

Constriction of the foreskin, can't be retracted

Phimosis

344

Painful, persistent, abnormal erecton

Priapism

345

Dysplasia of cavernous sheaths w/ fibrosis AKA "crooked penis"

Peyronie's Disease

346

Generalized swelling in the scrotum

Hydrocele

347

Localized swelling in the scrotum

Spermatocele

348

Blood in the testes

Hematocele

349

"Turtle neck" (?)

Paraphimosis

350

Infection of the fallopian tubes, under 35yrs, IUD increases risk

Salpingitis

351

Instead of a fetus a cancerous mass develops

Choriocarcinoma

352

M/C primary bone tumors

Multiple Myeloma
Osteosarcoma
Chondrosarcoma
Ewing's Sarcoma