Flashcards in Pathology Deck (352):
Type of calcification where calcium infiltrates into normal tissue, e.g. hypervitaminosis D
Type of calcification where calcium infiltrates into abnormal/damaged tissue, e.g. atherosclerosis or atheroma; damage to tunica intima
Caseous degeneration is seen with what disease?
"Cloudy swelling" is assoc. w/ what pathology?
Albuminous. Membrane injured which effects ionic transfer
"Coagulation"-type of degeneration is assoc. w/ what type of pathology?
"Enzymatic"-type of degeneration is assoc. w/ what organ pathology?
Fatty degeneration in the liver is AKA?
Fatty degeneration in the heart is AKA?
Tabby cat heart
What is the progression of fatty degeneration in the heart?
fatty dot --> Fatty streak --> Atheroma (fatty plaque) --> fibroatheroma (Fibrous tissue, calcium)
"Liquefaction" degeneration is assoc. w/ which system/organ?
CNS (Brain melts, tertiary syphilis, leprosy)
Wallerian degeneration is assoc. w/ what organ?
Peripheral nerves. Degenerates to the next Node of Ranvier.
"Dying back phenomenon"
Zenker's (Waxy) degeneration is assoc. with what?
Hyaline. M/C in skeletal muscle
Muscle replaced w/ hyaline
What does Karyolysis mean?
What does Karyorrhexis mean?
What does pyknosis mean?
Absence of an organ (usually a paired organ)
Small remnants of an organ present (lack of development)
Organ smaller than normal & defective
Decrease in size, typically from disuse. Seen most commonly in muscle
Increase in size
Increase in number of cells (e.g. pregnant uterus, goiter)
Changes from one cell type to another e.g pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium changing into stratified squamous in lungs of a smoker
Change in size, shape, or function of a cell. Precancerous, but last stage that can reverse to normal
Complete disorganization of a cell (cancer) e.g. squamous cell carcinoma
Type I collagen is found where?
Type II collagen is found where?
Disc (specifically nucleus pulposis)
Type III collagen ("reticular collagen") is found where?
Seen in early wound healing
Type IV collagen is found where?
Pneumoconoisis that is caused by silica from sand, rock, or glass. AKA "Rocky Quarry disease"
Pneumoconoisis that leads to mesothelioma (Malignant tumor)
Pneumoconoisis caused by an endemic fungus around the Mississippi or Ohio Valleys. AKA "Ohio Valley Fever" or "Mississippi Valley Fever"
Pneumoconoisis caused by endemic fungus in deserts of Southwest. AKA "San Joaquin Valley fever" or just "Valley Fever"
Pneumoconoisis caused by endemic fungus on Eastern seaboard
Sputum analysis that yields "Curschmann's Spirals" or Charcot Leyden crystals" is assoc. w/ what pathology?
This affects chloride channels. Affects GI & respiratory mucus linings & exocrine secretions.
What is usually the first sign of cystic fibrosis?
"Sweat Test" Mother notices salty taste on baby. "Salty baby syndrome"
A person w/ cystic fibrosis is susceptible to what organism?
Iron in lungs due to bleeding is known as what?
What pathology is honeycomb lung assoc. w/?
Caseous necrosis in lung.
Tuberculosis is known as what when it spreads to the spine?
What is a vertebra called that collapses from TB?
This is vasculitis of the lung & kidney
This is caused by an alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
This is decreased tubular excretion of nitrogen which increases nitrogen in the blood
This is M/C caused by prostate problems or ureter stones
This is AKA nephrolithiasis. Pain starts in back & radiates to the flanks
What is the M/C compound in kidney stones?
Once a kidney stone has entered the ureter, where does the pain localize?
In the groin
RBCs & small amounts of protein in the urine (e.g. acute glomerulonephritis) are assoc. w/ this syndrome
This syndrome is AKA Pre-ecclampsia or HEP (HTN, Edema, Proteinurea (massive))
HEP (HTN, edema, proteinurea) combined w/ convulsions & coma is known as what?
What is the appearance of a polycystic kidney?
Acute tubular necrosis can cause what?
This is AKA nephroblastoma. Mixed tumor of kidney in children (malignant)
Wilm's (disease/tumor (?))
This is caused by decreased cortisol levels. Symptoms included hypoadrenia, low blood pressure, hyperpigmentation d/t excess ACTH which increases melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), fatigue
Caused by excess aldosterone (Zona Glomerulosa). Symptoms include HTN & water retention
Caused by excess cortisol (Zona Fasciculata). Symptoms include hyperadrenia, moon faces, buffalo hump, purple striae, central obesity
Hyperplasia of thyroid cells due to lack of iodine
Hyperthyroidism that causes exophthalmoses (bulging eyes), heat intolerance, weight loss, rapid heart rate, hair loss
Autoimmune disease that causes hyperthyroidism
This causes hypothyroidism. Manifests as cretinism in the child. Symptoms include cold intolerance, weight gain, slower HR, loss of lat. 1/3 of eyebrows, slow mental faculties (memory, common sense)
This type of cancer is assoc. w/ HPV 16 virus
This can sometimes cause testicular cancer
Where is the M/C site for endometriosis to occur?
This is when the urethra exits on the dorsal surface of the penis
This is when the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis
What are two indications of increased HcG levels?
Hydatidiform mole (non-viable embryo that has implanted)
This is a tumor of smooth muscle such as fibroids in the uterus
This disease causes anovulation, obesity, & hirsutism (excess hair on body & face)
Polycystic ovary disease
This is a cancer of the testes. M/C cause of testicular cancer, mesnechymal/stem cells
What are the 5 stages of congenital syphilis?
1. Hutchinson's teeth - notched permanent upper incisors
2. Rhagades - Fissures or crack at edge of mouth
3. Saddle nose deformity - bridge of nose flattened
4. Sabre blade tibia
5. Interstitial keratitis - produces visual changes
What are the 3 stages of acquired syphilis?
Primary - Hard, singular, painless, nodule (chancre) on perineum
Secondary - Maculopapular rash & condylomata lata (flat warts on vulva)
Tertiary - Tabes dorsalis, aortic aneurysm, gummas inclusion body in CNS
What is the pupil sign assoc. w/ syphilis?
Argyll Robertson pupil AKA Prostitute's Pupil - doesn't react to light, but constricts on accommodation
Tonic pupil dilation (Mydriasis) due to injury to CN III Edinger Westphal nucleus is called what?
Tonic pupil constriction due to injury to sympathetic cervical ganglia is called what?
What organism causes Syphilis?
Haemophilus ducreyi (gram - coccobacillus) causes what kind of lesion?
Soft, painful, Chancroid
This venereal disease is similar to Trichimonas, except bacterial
This venereal disease causes burning urination, pus in urine, may produce arthritis (M/C in knee). "Coffee bean shaped" organism on microscopy
Gonorrhea (gram - diplococcus)
This venereal disease produces rectal strictures & is diagnosed w/ a Frei test
Chlamydia (Lymphogranuloma venereum)
This venereal disease causes purulent vaginal discharge that is green, frothy, & foul smelling. Caused by a protozoan.
This is a spasm of lower esophageal sphincter. Causes megaesophagus of upper esophagus. Lack of motility due to absence of myenteric plexus
Metaplasia of esophageal cells into stomach cells, caused by GERD
This is occlusion of hepatic veins. Assoc w/ a triad of abdominal pain, ascites, & hepatomegaly. Acute symptoms are rapid, severe, upper abdominal pain, jaundice, heptomegaly, increased liver enzymes, & eventual encephalopathy
Caused by intolerance to gluten. Loss of villi, therefore loss of absorption
Celiac disease AKA Non-tropical sprue
Inflammation of gallbladder. M/C cause of gallstones
Gallstones are AKA?
Seen in young people. Affects sm. intestines, cecum, & ascending colon. Skip lesions or cobblestone appearance. No bloody diarrhea. Autoimmune. Leads to dehydration b/c water isn't getting reabsorbed in sm. intestines.
Crohn's AKA Regional ileitis AKA Distal ileitis AKA Regional enteritis
Outpouching in the intestines. Usually lower L quadrant
M/C cause of death in children world wide d/t dehydration from diarrhea
M/C cause of frank, red blood in the stool
Congenital megacolon. Absence of myenteric plexus (Parasympathetic plexus)
Telescoping of intestine onto itself, can be caused by rotovirus vaccine
Spastic colon, distention, pain, diarrhea, stress related
Hematemesis (Vomiting of blood) d/t alcoholism. Laceration of esophagus & prox. stomach
Outpouching of distal ileum
Polyposis characterized by polyps in the entire GI tract
Iron deficiency anemia, cheilosis, esophageal webbing & glossitis
Plummer Vinson syndrome
Infant projectile vomiting. In a newborn
Anatomically shortened esophagus
Sliding hiatal hernia
Fat in stool. Caused by problem w/ gall bladder
AKA Toxic megacolon. Pathological intestinal changes, ulcers, bloody diarrhea, affects L side of abdomen. "Lead pipe rigidity". Starts at the colon & moves distally
Twisting of an organ around its long axis
Outpouching of the esophagus
Decreased ADH d/t pos. pituitary problem. Causes dehydration
Decreased production of insulin by the beta cells of pancreas (Islets of Langerhans). 1st seen in the eyes. M/C die from heart disease or renal failure. Produces polydypsia (increase thirst), polyurea (increase urination), & polyphagia (increase hunger)
Iron in organs & skin. AKA Bronze diabetes
Calorie malnutrition, includes protein
Inborn error of copper metabolism. Kayser Fleisher rings (copper deposits in eye). Hepatolenticular degeneration.
Ant. horn & corticospinal tracts affected w/ no sensory loss. Motor only. Lower motor neuron in upper extremities & upper motor neuron in lower. It's progressive
ALS AKA Lou Gherig's disease
Progressive severe atrophy of the cerebral cortex. Neurofibrillary tangles, decrease in Ach. #1 cause of dementia
Cerebellar tonsils herniate, specifically the vermis
Type I Arnold Chiari
Cerebellar tonsil herniation w/ meningiomyelocele in lumbar spine
Type II Arnold Chiari
M/C brain tumors w/ the best prognosis. In CNS
Astrocytoma, Type I & II
M/C brain tumor in CNS
Brain tumor w/ the worst prognosis
Glioblastoma multiform (Type IV astrocytoma)
M/C brain tumor seen in cerebellar vermis in children. M/C cerebellar tumor
Slowest growing brain tumor. Affects cerebrum
Acoustic neuroma. Onion bulb tumor. M/C cause of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss
Lesions of sclerosis of the spinocerebellar tract (neurofibrillary tangles). Assoc. w/ chromosome 9
AKA post-infectious polyradiculopathy. M/C seen after a recent flu or vaccination. Peripheral demyelinating disease. Areflexia & ascending paralysis. Fatal if it hits the diaphragm
Interruption of cervical sympathetics (e.g. trauma, pancoast tumor). Symptoms include ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis, enophthalmosis
AKA Hansen's disease. Liquefactive necrosis. Skin damage & destruction of sensory nerves
Central demyelinization & plaquing of the spinal cord & brain. Charcot's triad (SIN): scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus. Characterized by exacerbations & remissions. Effects distal muscles & causes visual disturbances. Affects corticospinal tracts
Formation of antibodies that block the Ach receptors at the myoneural junction. Thymic enlargement (Thymoma). Causes progressive weakness & fatigue. First starts in the ocular muscles, gets worse at the end of day. Jaw is tight & sore. Autoimmune, females age 20-40
AKA Von Recklinghausen's disease. Cafe au Lait spots, "Coast of California appearance
Schwann cell tumor is AKA?
Onion bulb tumor
Problem w/ dopamine in basal ganglia. Inclusion bodies (Lewy bodies). Masked faces, stopped posture, resting tremor, & festinating/shuffling gait. Cogwheel rigidity. Substantia nigra of mesencephalon effected
Parkinson's AKA Paralysis agitans
AKA combined systems disease. Dorsal columns & corticospinal tract affected. Results from long term pernicious anemia (decreased intrinsic factor) or decreased B12
PLS (Posterolateral sclerosis)
It affects the ant. horn, produces LMNL (lower motor neuron ?). Effects brainstem, then cranial nerves affected, possibly breathing apparatus as well
Cyst like formation from the central canal of the spinal cord that leads to loss of pain & temp. & signs of an upper motor neuron lesion. Cape-like distribution of pins & needles sensation. Caused by syrinx, a central dilation of the spinal cord. Loss of pain & temp. bilaterally
Alcoholic psychosis w/ dementia. Depletion of thiamine (B1) due to severe alcoholism
Tumor of glandular tissue
Benign bone tumor. Metaphyseal/diaphyseal. Eccentric. AKA Blister of Bone
Aneurismal Bone Cyst
Tumors that are encapsulated, have a short zone of transition and are asymptomatic tend to be malignant or benign?
Tumor-shaped radiolucency d/t loss of bone density from hyperparathyroidism. (PTH)
Starry sky appearance. Jaw mass. Central African child. Epstein Barr virus
Cancer of the epithelial tissue, usually spread by lymph system
Cancer that has not invaded the basement membrane
Carcinoma in situ
Cancer assoc. w/ HPV 16 virus
Benign bone tumor found in <20yoa. Epiphyseal/metaphyseal
Benign tumor of cartilage
Cacner that is M/C'ly seen in sacrum. Crosses joints
Type of cancer M/C'ly found in US
Absence of one or both testicles in scrotum (failure of descent of the testes. Can cause testicular cancer
Benign hand tumor. Stippled calcification.
Enchondroma AKA Ollier's disease
Syndrome assoc. w/ Enchondromatosis, soft tissue swelling, & bone deformity
Multi-laminated (onion skin appearence) periosteal reaction. Cortical saurcerization. Children 10-25. Moth-eaten appearance in medulla that mimics osteomyelitis
M/C breast tumor. Assoc. w/ estrogens
Fibroadenoma of breast
Myxomatous tissue. Spindled & polyhedral cells
Benign tumor w/ ground glass appearance. Cafe au lait "Coast of Maine" appearance w/ early puberty (Albright's disease). Monostotic form is assoc. w/ Rind sign/Rind of sclerosis
Tumor of osteoclasts. Osteoclastoma. M/C in knee. Quasi-malignant. Age 20-40, epiphyseal/metaphyseal
Giant cell tumor
Benign tumor of blood vessels, M/C'ly found in spine
M/C primary liver cancer.
Hepatocellular liver cancer AKA Hepatoma
AKA Hans-Schuller-Christian disease AKA Histolytic granuloma AKA Eosinophilic Granuloma. Lipid accumulates --> vertebra plana
Cancer of the stomach that metastasizes to ovaries. Signet ring cell tumor
Tumor of sm. muscle. Fibroids in uterus
White patch on oral mucosa from tobacco. Can't be wiped off (precancerous)
M/C lung cancer w/ non-smokers. Best prognosis.
Lung cancer w/ the worst prognosis.
Oat cell & small cell
M/C lung cancer in smokers
Metastasis from lung M/C'ly goes to what organ?
Tumors that are non-encapsulated, have a long zone of transition, cause pain at night, & weight loss are often malignant or benign?
M/C form of cancer in bones
Tumor b/w heads of 3-4 metatarsals
M/C primary bone malignancy in adults. Amyloid buildup. Inclusion bodies known as Russell bodies. X-rays show "punched-out" lesions, raindrop skull
Multiple myeloma AKA plasma cell leukemia/sarcoma
M/C benign cardiac tumor & M/C cardiac tumor
Tumor M/C'ly seen in neural arch b/w ages 10-30
M/C benign tumor of extremities
What are the 2 types of osteochondroma?
Sessile - "Bump in the bone"
Pedunculated - Cartilaginous cap appearance, coathanger's exostosis, mushroom projection
What is multiple osteochondromas AKA?
Hereditary Multiple Exostosis
Tumor where the pain is worse at night & is relieved by aspirin. Affects 15-25 yoa. Radiolucent nidus w/ reactive sclerosis
M/C benign tumor of the skull. M/C in frontal sinus (frontal bone)
Sequestrum, involucrum, cloaca. M/C caused by Staph. aureus
Osteomyelitis (Brodie's Abscess if chronic)
M/C primary bone cancer in children (10-30)
This is assoc. w/ warts
Neuroblastoma, benign tumor of adrenal medulla. Causes episodic HTN
Assoc. w/ anovulation, obesity, hirsutism
Polycystic ovary disease
Tumor of striated muscle or heart muscle
Cancer of connective tissue, usually spread by vascular system
Cancer of testes, M/C cause of testicular cancer, mesenchymal/stem cells
Benign bone tumor located in the metaphyseal/diaphyseal region. Concentric. Assoc w/ fallen fragment sign. Age affected <20. Found in long bones
Simple/Unicameral Bone Cyst
Characteristics of stomach cancer
M/C in lesser curvatures
Tumor of all 3 germinal layers
Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes d/t metastasis, usually GI tract, usually L side supraclavicular lymph nodes
"Nephroblastoma" Mixed tumor of kidney in children
Yellow tumor of connective tissue
Absence of oxygen
Deficiency of oxygen
Pathogens or toxins in the blood, can include bacteremia
Bacteria in the blood
Movement of WBCs along concentration gradient of tissue damage byproducts
WBCs lining the damaged vessels (adhesions of leukocytes to endothelium)
Neutrophils & monocytes squeeze through the walls of blood vessels towards site of damaged tissue or infection
Diapedesis AKA Leukocyte extravasation
Summary of clot formation
Fibrinogen into fibrin via thromboplastin (requires Vit. K & Calcium in cascade)
Foreign body in the blood travels
Emboli in lung is M/C from what location?
Fluid & high protein (damaged capillary wall)
Fluid & low protein (Normal capillary wall)
5 stages of inflammation
1. Injury/wound - tissue is damaged
2. Vasoconstriction - sympathetic reaction
3. Vasodilation - bring more blood to injured site
4. Swelling/Edema - Cells move into damaged area (Chemotaxis)
5. Healing - mast cells form heparin & serotonin
Substances that increase inflammation?
Substances that decrease inflammation
Enkephalins/endorphins (pain control)
NSAIDS (COX inhibitors)
Steroids (Phospholipase A2 inhibitor)
These cells become mast cells & make histaimine, bradykinin, serotonin, & heparin
These cells transform into plasma cells --> make antibodies
Types of granulocytes
Types of agranulocytes
What is a macrophage called in the liver?
What is a macrophage called in the lung?
What is a macrophage called in the brain?
What is a macrophage called in the skin?
What are types of natural killers cells?
Where do T-lymphocytes mature?
T-helper cells are assoc. w/ what cells and what do they do?
CD4 cells; activate B cells
T-killer cells are assoc. w/ what cells and what do they do?
CD8; Cytotoxic cells. Destroys cancer. Kills foreign agents, transplant rejections
What do T-suppressor cells do?
Suppress immune system. Slows antibody production
These WBCs make 60% of WBC count. Increase in acute bacterial infections & acute inflammation
These WBCs make up 30% of WBC count. Increase in viral conditions & chronic inflammation
These WBCs make up 5-8% WBC count. Assoc. w/ chronic conditions. Changes into phagocytes at tissue level
These WBCs make up 2-4% of WBC count. Increase in parasites & allergies
These WBCs make up 0-.5% of WBC count. Like mast cells, produce heparin & histamine. Increase conditions that cause histamine release
Natural immunity involves what 4 types of cells?
Natural killer cells
This is a decrease in B-cells. Decreased IgG. M/C primary immunodeficiency at birth. X-linked
Hypoplasia of thymus. Primary T-cell deficiency at birth
Starry sky appearance. Central Africa (young child). Jaw swelling
Pel Epstein fever. Biopsy shows Sternberg cells. Enlarged lymph nodes & heptaosplenomegaly
Leukemia of bone marrow. Affects plasma cells. Age 50+. Example of non-Hodkins lymphoma.
Newborn w/o proper B or T cells. Problem w/ bone marrow. In adult, M/C due to aplastic anemia. Possibly from benzene poisoning.
Severe combined immune deficiency
Type of Hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 8 deficiency. Causes decrease in platelet adhesion.
Hemophilia A (Von Willibrand disease)
Type of hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 9. X-chromosome. Females only carriers.
Christmas Factor disease (Christmas disease in males)
Hemophilia assoc w/ factor number 10. (Factor name)
Mild type of hemophilia assoc. w/ factor number 11
Name of clotting factor 12
Decreased RBCs & WBCs in the blood. Caused by benzene poisoning. Assoc. w/ degeneration of bone marrow.
Type of anemia assoc. w/ chronic blood loss (menses)
Iron deficiency (Microcytic, hypochromic)
Type of anemia assoc. w/ lack of intrinsic factor. Gastritis can be a cause
Type of anemia assoc. w/ pregnancy. Leads to spina bifida occulta
Folic acid anemia (Megaloblastic anemia)
Type of anemia seen in vegetarians
B-12 anemia (macrocytic, hypochromic)
Hemorrhage causes what kind of anemia?
Anemia d/t hemolytic breakdown can be caused by what?
This is AKA Cooley's Anemia or Mediterranean Anemia. Has "hair on end" appearance on X-ray
This is caused by a Rh- mother & Rh+ father leading to Rh+ baby. Type II cytotoxic
Decreased RBCs, WBCs, & platelets in the blood
Primary polycythemia is AKA?
Polycythemia Rubra Vera (pathological)
Secondary polycythemia is AKA?
Relative Polycythemia (normal response to high altitudes)
Decreased platelets in blood
Type of aneurysm that occurs in the circle of Willis. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Aneurysm caused by longitudinal tearing away of the aorta
Aneurysm w/ symptoms of sudden low back pain, hypovolemic shock, thready pulse, "Curvilinear calcification", "Fusiform shape"
Abdominal aorta aneurysm
Deposition of fatty plaques (atheroma). Form of ateriosclerosis. Get irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large & medium sized arteries, causing narrowing of arterial lumens.
AKA Thromboangitis obliterans. Lower extremity, males w/ history of smokin. Intermittent claudication = cramping w/ exertion
Fluid in pericardial space. Prevents proper ventricular filling.
Narrowing of aorta distal to the L subclavian. Produces HTN in upper extremities & Hypotension in lower extremities
Coarctation of aorta (congential)
Tunica media of medium-sized arteries calcified. In smokers & diabetics
Coronoary artery vasospasm
Vasospasm of arteries. Maybe primary or secondary to other collagen diseases such as Lupus. Found in hands & feet. Produce triphasic color change, from pallor(white) to cyanosis (blue) to rubor (red). Brought on by cold or emotion. Can lead to dry gangrene. Typically in upper extremities of females w/ a history of smoking.
Half moon shaped RBC. "H-shaped vertebra"
Sickle Cell anemia
Granulomatous inflammation of the aortic arch
Takayasu arteritis AKA Pulseless disease
Affects temporal arteries. Assoc. w/ long-standing HTN. If affects opthalmic artery, can lead to blindness. Increased ESR. Best way to diagnose is by biopsy
Temporal arteritis AKA Giant Cell arteritis
what are the 4 components of the tetralogy of Fallot?
Dextrorotation of aorta
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Interventricular septal defect
Due to tooth extraction. Strep infection causing Aschoff bodies from Rheumatic fever. Mitral valve affected.
M/C leukemia seen in children
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
M/C acute leukemia in adults but can be seen at any age. Worst prognosis.
Acute myeloblastic leukemia
M/C chronic leukemia in adults.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Leukemia seen in young adulthood. Increased granulocytets. "Philadelphia chromosome"
Chronic myelocytic leukemia
M/C form of genetic dwarfism. Growth plates affected. Failure of normal epiphyseal cartilage formation. X-ray shows "Bullet vertebra" "Trident hand"
Accumulation of homogentisic acid, blue-black deposits in cartilage, ears, nose, & cheeks. Causes ochronsis (calcification of discs in spine). Urine turns black on standing collection. Can get increase of tyrosine. Homogentisic acid is intermediate phenylalanine & tyrosine metabolism
Hereditary progressive peroneal muscle atrophy. Affects tibalis anterior also.
Charcot Marie Tooth
trisomy 21, male or female. Flat, hypoplastic face. Tranverse palmar crease (Simian crease) Transposition w/ chromosome 14
Trisomy 18. Retardation
Hereditary onset age 30-50 yoa. Basal ganglion affected; atrophy of caudate. On chromosome #4. Decrease in GABA. Produces dementia & death.
Arachnodactyly (spider-like fingers), sublucation or dislocation of the lens of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurysms, tall stature
Defect in type I collagen. Blue sclera & brittle bones
Can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine d/t phenylalanine hydroxylase. Retardation can be controlled by diet if caught early
Lacks glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Excess glycogen stored in liver, can't break down. Glycogen storage disease
"Cat's cry" Characteristic cry of newborn. Disappears usually by age 1-2
Cri du Chat
Lipodystrophy assoc w/ excess glucocerebrosides in brain, liver, & spleen
Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ excess galactocerebrosides in white matter
Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ increase in sphingomyelin. A sphingomyelinase deficiency
Lipodystrophy assoc. w/ increase gangliosides in brain. Glycosphingolipid. Hexosaminidase A deficiency. Cherry red spots on the macula. Infant death. M/C in Ashkenasi Jews
Musuclar dystrophy. Boys age 3-7. Pseudohypertrophy of calves. Muscle replace by fat. Recessive X-linked. Increased CPK. Gower's maneuver. Waddling gait. Proximal muscles affected.
Duchene's Muscular dystrophy
Autosomal dominant form of muscular dystrophy in adults. Affects face, scapula, upper arms
Autosomal class of muscular dystrophy. Effects hip & shoulders
Type of muscular dystrophy where you can't relax muscle
M/C form of mild mental retardation caused by fragile site at XQ27
47XXY karotype, tall male, low IQ, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, sterile
45XO Karyotype, female, short, webbed neck, amenorrhea, lacks female secondary characteristics
AKA Forrestier's disease. Typically affects males 50+. Trouble swallowing d/t calcification of ALL. Assoc. w/ diabetes mellitus, increased appetite, thirst, urination
DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis)
Calcium or bone w/i muscle d/t trauma. M/C in quads or biceps. If in adductors, known as Prussian's disease. Example of metaplasia
AKA Charcot Joint. M/C location is foot/ankle, #2 is knee. Causes: diabetes, corticosteroids, syringomyelia, tabes dorsalis, alcoholic neuropath, leprosy
Neuropathic joint AKA Neurogenic joint AKA Neurotrophic joint
6 D's assoc. w/ Neurotrophic joint
Debris of bone
AKA Marble bone disease or Albers Schonbergs disease. Xray sign - Bone w/i a Bone (early stage), Sandwich vertebra (late stage). Pts die by age 20-30 from hepatosplenomegaly & anemia
Affects men over 50, increase hat size, enlargement/deformity of bone, cortical thickening. Pathological cell is the osteoclastic cell. Labs show increase alkaline phosphatase, increased urinary hydroxyproline, normal calcium & phosphorus
Pagets AKA Osteitis Deformans
4 radiological stages assoc w/ Pagets
1. Lytic Phase (osteoclastic activity)
2. Mixed phase (combine lytic & blastic)
3. Blastic phase (osteoblastic)
4. Malignant degeneration (osteosarcoma)
This is AKA Progressive systemic sclerosis. Labs show ANA, FANA, seropositive for RA. Xray shows resorption of distal tufts
What are the CREST signs assoc w/ Scleroderma?
Telangectasis (dilation of superficial blood vessels)
dead necrotic center of bone infection
New bone formation assoc w/ bone infection/osteomyelitis
Opening from bone to the skin. Seen w/ Brodie's abscess. This is opening in Involucrum. Can get Marjolins ulcer which is a squamous cell carcinoma
Enzyme that is elevated in prostatic cancer which has ruptured the prostate capsule
Enzyme that is elevated in liver & bone conditions
Build up of lipofuscin in organs. "Lipofuscin granules are old age pigments"
#1 mineral deficiency in the US
#1 mineral deficiency in the world
AKA Marie Stumpell's disease. Seronegative arthritides. HLA B27+. Autoimmune, inflammatory. Affects SI joints. Causes morning LBP & stiffness. Moves up the spine. Starts age 15-35 males. Can cause abdominal aortic aneurysm & iritis
Coal miners lung w/ RA nodules
Chronic RA w/ splenomegaly
Type of arthritis that usually affects the knee.
Uric acid (tophi - crystal deposits in tissues) in blood. In big toe = podagra. M/C cause is diet increase purines; red wine & meat, aged cheese. Labs show increased ESR, increased uric acid. Xray shows it destroys from outside in, juxtaarticular erosions, overhanging edge sign
Usually affects the knee. Causes enlarged intercondylar notch
Unilateral distribution in weight bearing joints. Subchondral sclerosis, osteophytes. Heberden's nodes (DIP) & Bouchard's (PIP) M/C location is hip then knee. M/C type of arthritis
Seronegative arthritide. HLA B27+. Xray shows periarticular erosions, mouse ear erosions, pencil in cup deformities, Ray's sign. Symptoms include cocktail sausage digits, silver scales, pitted nails, pull off a scale & it bleeds (Auspitz sign)
Seronegative arthritide. HLA B27+. Caused by Chlamydia. Symptoms include white pus, Conjunctivits/Uveitis (can't see), Urethritis (Can't pee), Arthritis (can't dance w/ me), heel spur & plantar fasciitis (Lover's heel)
Reiter's AKA reactive arthritis AKA venereal arthritis
Inflammatory condition, usually begins in hands. Symmetrical distribution. Ulnar deviation of wrist. Ankylosis of spine. Pannus formation (hypertrophy of synovium of joint) over the joints. Haygarth's nodes (MCP) & Bouchard's nodes (PIP). Juxtaarticular osteoporosis, rat bite, or marginal erosions. Seropositive. Boutonniere & Swan neck deformities. Bilateral symmetrical involvement
Types of seronegative arthritis. All are HLA B27 positive. All RA latex negative.
Types of seronegative arthritis. All are RA latex positive
Systemic Lupus Erthematosis
Dry eyes (xeropthalmia), Dry mouth (xerostomia), Seropositive for RA latex
JRA is AKA?
Photosensitivity, Libman Sach's endocarditis, autoimmune disease, antibodies against DNA. Use the ANA or FANA test. Butterfly rash (Malar rash)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
Death of bone d/t lack of blood. M/C cause is trauma. Also caused by corticosteroids
Avascular necrosis AKA osteonecrosis
AVN of the spine
AVN of the lunate
AVN of the hip
Legge Calve Perthe's
AVN of the navicular
AVN of the scaphoid
M/C fx of the wrist. Fx of distal radius w/ pos. displacement. "Dinner fork deformity"
Avulsion of tibial tuberosity of knee in young athletic children
Osgood Schlatter's AKA Tibial Apophysitis
Fx of distal radius w/ ant. displacement. "Garden Spade Deformity"
Smith's Fx AKA Reverse Colles
"Blue Bloaters" Chronic cough, sputum blood-streaked, wheezing, dyspnea
"Pink Puffer" Enlargement of airspaces. Primary cause is smoking. Barrel-chested
"Dead lung" irreversible, focal bronchial dilation w/ infection & necrosis of tissue
Lung & bone (lytic, typically in skull), exophthalmosis & diabetes insipidus
Hand-Schuller Christian syndrome
Benign prostate hypertrophy typically affects which lobe of the prostate?
Prostate cancer is usually found in which lobe of the prostate?
Inflammation of the glans penis & prepuce
Constriction of the foreskin, can't be retracted
Painful, persistent, abnormal erecton
Dysplasia of cavernous sheaths w/ fibrosis AKA "crooked penis"
Generalized swelling in the scrotum
Localized swelling in the scrotum
Blood in the testes
"Turtle neck" (?)
Infection of the fallopian tubes, under 35yrs, IUD increases risk
Instead of a fetus a cancerous mass develops