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Flashcards in child birth Deck (22):
1

define childbirth

the process by which the baby and placenta are expelled from the uterus

2

when does childbirth usually occur

37-42 weeks gestation = term

3

what is the first step of obstetric examination

use your eyes
- look for scars e.g. previous caesarean

4

what is the 2nd stage of obstetric examination

use your hands:

- fetal size/gestational age = measure fundal height

- fetal lie = the relation of the long axis of the baby to the uterus

- presentation = part of the fetus that occupies the lower segment of the uterus

- engagement = refers to how deep the presenting part is engaged in the bony pelvis

5

what are the aspects of 'presentation'

(what part is coming out first)
-cephalic (vertex)
-breech
-shoulder

6

what is the 3rd stage of obstetric examination

use your ears:
- fetal heart rate
- handheld doppler

7

what is the 4th stage of obstetric examination

use your mouth:
- ask for babies movements

8

how can you tell when childbirth has started

when painful uterine contractions accompany effacement and dilation of the cervix

9

describe the first stage of labour

cervix opens to full dilatation
(longest stage)

10

describe the second stage of labour

from full dilatation to the delivery

11

describe the third stage of labour

lasts from the delivery of the baby to the delivery of the placenta

12

what determines the progress through the stages of labour

3 mechanical forces

- passenger
- passage
- power

13

describe passenger and its aspects

diameter of babies head
- it is the largest part to negotiate the birth canal
- bones are not fused yet, therefore, can overlap when passing through cervix
- occiput is the reference point

-position = degree of rotation of the head
- attitude = degree of flexion of the head
- presenting part = lowest part of fetus palpable on vagina examination

14

describe passage

the bony pelvis:
- inlet = wider transverse diameter
- mid cavity = round
- outlet = wider A-P diameter

15

describe power

degree of force expelling baby
- contractions

16

what are the stages of dilatation

latent phase = 1st 3cm dilatation

active phase = 3-10cm

17

what are the stages within the second stage of labour

passive stage
= till head reaches pelvic floor and mother experiences desire to push

active stage
= irresistible desire to bear down

18

what are the stages within the 3rd stage of labour

active management
- medication to induce

physiological management
- not clamping, no traction, no induction

19

how can we change power

give oxytocin to make contractions more powerful
-synthetic

20

what aspects of 'passenger' can cause abnormal labour

disorder of rotation
OC = occiput posterior
OT = occiput transverse

fetal size

21

what is it referred to when the pelvis is not wide enough for the passage of the baby

cephalo-pelvic disproportion

22

describe instrumental delivery techniques

forceps
- quicker
- more maternal injury
- more neonatal facial nerve palsies

ventouse
- rotation possible
- suction can cause bruising

caesarean delivery