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Flashcards in clinical: renal failure Deck (11):
1

describe the characteristics of renal failure

- reduction in GFR
- high creatinine

2

examination findings of acute kidney failure

- low BP e.g. 90/60
- JVP low illustrating dehydration e.g. 0cm

3

describe a blood test of someone with acute kidney failure

- elevated creatinine
- elevated urea
- low GFR

4

what are the causes of pre-renal kidney disease

- due to decreased perfusion of kidneys
- generally low BP
-bleeding
-sepsis
-heart failure

5

what are the causes of renal kidney disease

mainly from acute tubular necrosis which generally arises from pre-renal

- could also be due to rapid progressive glomerulonephritis

6

what is the best test for post-renal acute kidney injury

renal ultrasound

7

examination findings of chronic kidney failure

high blood pressure e.g. 180/90
edema (fluid overload)
elevated JVP

malnutrition
rash (build up urea & phosphate)
pericardial rub

8

why is phosphate elevated in chronic kidney failure

kidneys urinate out phosphate if the kidneys have failed the circulating levels in the blood will increase

9

other than a blood test, what other tests are helpful to confirm diagnosis

renal ultrasound to identify size, CRF = <8cm

10

what is the most likely cause of CKD

diabetes (type 2)

11

what is the best treatment for CKD

treat hypertension
- ACE inhibitor (dilate efferent arteriole)