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Flashcards in pathology ovary/uterus Deck (17):
1

teratoma (dermoid cyst)

- all ages including children
- derived from postmitotic germ cells
- composed from a variety of mature tissues derived from endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
- usually benign, occasionally malignant

2

mucinous cystadenoma

- benign
- cystic tumour lined by mucinous epithelium
- wide age range
- pain and mass lesion
- unilateral
- can be very large

3

classification of ovarian epithelial tumours

- mucinous vs serous
mucinous = mucinous epithelium
serous = tubal type epithelium
- benign or borderline or malignant

4

causes of infection of fallopian tubes

- usually bacterial
- TB
- parasites

5

clinical presentation of infection of fallopian tubes

depends on organism and site
- abnormal bleeding
- vaginal discharge
- tender abdomen
- cysts
- infertility

6

findings of ectopic pregnancy in fallopian tubes

- adnexal mass
- tenderness in abdomen
- blood test = beta HGC elevated
- ultrasound = empty uterus and adnexal mass

7

leiomyoma

smooth muscle tumour of the myometrium
- fibroid nodules

8

tumours of the muscular uterine wall

leiomyoma (fibroid)
- benign SM tumours
- common
- hormone receptive

leiomyosarcoma
- malignant tumour of SM

9

define endometriosis

presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus

10

why is endometriosis a problem

- endometriosis responds to hormones during menstrual cycle
- bleeds into adjacent tissue during menstruation causing pain, cysts, tissue inflammation
- can give rise to malignancy

11

"chocolate cyst"

benign
cystic lesion filled with clotted blood in ovaries

12

investigations when heavy menstrual bleeding is present

- ultrasound to show thickness of endometrium
- pipelle biopsy
- curettage (gets biopsy with use of speculum)

13

histology of endometrial carcinoma

glands proliferate and become increasingly crowded and complex

14

causes of excess estrogen (leads to endometrial cancer)

- obesity
- PCOS
- hormone secreting tumour
- early menarche, late menopause
- exogenous estrogen

15

consequences of too much estrogen

continuous proliferation of cells, hyperplasia. if it undergoes mutation can become neoplasia
overstimulation of endometrium

16

types of pap smear

conventional smear (old technique)

cytobrush = liquid-based cytology (both HPV testing & cervical cancer)

17

management of different cervical cancer grades

normal
= 3 year follow up

low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)
= next smear in 12months

high grade (CIN 3)
= referral to gynaecologist for treatment