haematuria and proteinuria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in haematuria and proteinuria Deck (11):

describe haematuria and its causes

= blood in the urine
- may be a result of glomerular disease, tumour or infection


describe proteinuria and how it is identified

- protein in the urine mainly albumin

- measured by a 24-hour urine test


causes of microalbuminuria

- diabetes mellitus
- fever
- exercise
- heart failure
- poor glycaemic control


describe nephrotic syndrome

>3.5g/day urinary protein - leaky disease

- low serum albumin
- oedema
- frothy urine
- hypercholesterolemia
- blood clots
- kideny function can be normal or abnormal


what is the mechanism for oedema

increased albumin excretion, liver cant keep up
reduction in oncotic pressure
egression of fluid into interstitial space


what else goes wrong with nephrotic syndrome

low plasma oncotic pressure causing increased production of lipoproteins from the liver. As a result increased production of cholesterol, consequently affecting cardiovascular system

also increased risk for infection & malnutrition


describe acute glomerulonephritis

is rapidly progressive, acute renal failure
leaky glomerular (blood & protein)
may have nephritic syndrome
- unwell
- oliguric
- hypertensive
- volume overload (oedema)


what is the difference between nephritis and nephrotic

nephritis = acute renal failure (injury)

nephrotic = protein loss (oedema)


how can you tell if an acute renal failure is due to nephritic syndrome or not

will have protein or blood in the urine (could however be due to diabetes)


origins of haematuria

- bleeding from somewhere in the urinary tract
- glomerular (often associated with proteinuria)
- collecting system (often not associated with proteinuria)
- focal lesion e.g. tumour


describe the incidence and aetiology of renal cell carcinoma

more common in male than female

caused by smoking or genetic