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Flashcards in pathology testis and penis Deck (16):
1

describe non-testicular scrotal masses

- hernia
- hydrocoele
- haematocoele
- epididymis

2

what is the clinical presentation of someone with testicular tumours

- enlargement or irregularity of testis
- may be with metastatic disease
- hormonal effects

3

where is the origin of germ cell neoplasms

totipotent cells

4

what are the types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (GCT)

1. embryonic carcinoma
2. teratoma
3. choriocarcinoma
4. yolk sac tumour

5

causes of non-seminomatous GCT

genetic factors
-slight increase in family members
-undescended testes
-low incidence in african and black americans

environment factors not known

6

pathogenesis (pre-disposing factors) of non-seminomatous GCT

-cryptorchidism
-gonadal dysgenesis
-intratubular germ cell neoplasia (CIS)

genetic changes = 12p increases copies

7

macroscopic appearances

- expands testis, replaces normal tissue
- confined within T. albuginea
- cut surface
choriocarcinoma = hemorrhage
teratoma = variegated: cartilage, cysts

8

type of gonadal germ cell tumours

seminoma

9

types of embryonic cell tumours

- teratoma (derm e.g. ectoderm etc)
- choriocarcinoma (trophoblast)
- yolk sac tumour

10

how is it diagnosed

clinical examination

ultrasound, to confirm

inguinal orchidectomy

pathological examination

11

how is staging regulated

- chest x-ray
- CT scan of chest, abdomen, pelvis
- serum tumour markers

12

spread of testicular GCT

local invasion
- into rete testis % epididymis (uncommon)

lymphatic
- common iliac & para-aortic

haematogenous
- lung, liver etc
- later in seminomas

13

tumour markers

HCG
- choriocarcinomas
- malignant teratomas
- some seminomas

AFP
- yolk sac tumours
- malignant teratomas

14

management (post-orchidectomy)

seminoma
-radiotherapy
-extensive = chemotherapy

NSGCT
-intensive surveillance

15

diseases of the penis

skin diseases and venereal diseases

carcinoma (SqCC)

16

Carcinoma of penis (SqCC)

- elderly men
- circumcision protective
- due to HPV (invasive carcinoma)
- glans and coronal sulcus
- spread to inguinal nodes