Flashcards in Childhood Progression and Development Deck (17):
Who said, "Experience is the only teacher."?
Ralph Waldo Emerson.
What are the three types learning behaviors in Bloom's Taxonomy?
Who came up with these?
1. Cognitive domain.
2. Affective domain.
3. Psychomotor domain.
This hierarchy of learning behaviors became known as Bloom's taxonomy and was created by Benjamin Bloom.
Who are the two major psychologists related to Cognitive Development theory?
Piaget and Vygotsky
What is Vygotsky known for?
His sociocultural perspective on cognitive development.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development says that children within the same stage of cognitive development will have similar capabilities. What do recent studies say about this?
Recent studies have started doubting the simplicity of Piaget's stages.
What is "private speech"?
The practice of talking to yourself.
Vygotsky believed that every stage of development appears twice first on a ______ level and then on a _______ level?
Who came up with the idea of the "zone of proximal development"?
What is this idea?
That the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the "zone of proximal development".
In other words, at a certain age, there is a specific limit to a child's potential for cognitive development.
What is the Premack Principle?
It says that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforc3er for a less-preferred activity.
An example of the Premack principle might be to allow students to work with their friends on a second worksheet (the more-preferred activity), if they quietly complete the first worksheet on their own (the less-preferred activity).
An average score on a test is called what?
The mean score.
What is the most central score called?
The median score.
For example, in the following set of numbers: 1, 4, 1, 7, 9... 4 is the median.
What is the most frequently occurring single number called?
For example, in the following set of numbers: 20, 21, 22, 22, 22, 25, 25... 22 is the mode.
Who studied the Identity Formation?
What is it?
The idea that the major task of adolescence is identity vs. identity diffusion.
Identity is defined by the question "Who am I uniquely?" (likes, dislikes, beliefs, traits, interests, identifications).
Identity diffusion is characterized by not knowing who you are and not being willing to make choices to figure it out.
Who defined 8 stages of human development?
What are Erik Erikson's 8 stages of human development?
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair
Who came up with the hierarchy of needs?