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CLEP Educational Psychology > Philosophy and Educational Aims > Flashcards

Flashcards in Philosophy and Educational Aims Deck (27):

For young children such as first graders, actually learning the technical curriculum is less important than learning what?

How to be social.


What is often neglected in education due to pressure on teachers to prepare students for standardized tests?


Socialization is one of the most important educational aspects. It is important for teachers to try to maintain a healthy balance between socialization and other basic educational aspects..


Why is it common for schools to evaluate children who are applying for kindergarten?

To find out if they are ready to begin schooling.


Why do teachers often rush group projects or skip them entirely?

What is the danger of doing this?

Because teachers are often rushed to cover all of the material in their curriculum.

Hands-on activities are very important for deeper learning and socialization. Some of the most important educational experiences are missed when projects are skipped.


What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?

1. Sensorimotor.

2. Preoperational.

3. Concrete operational.

4. Formal operational.


What is the 1st of Piaget's 4 stages called?
What is the age range of this stage?


Birth through ages 18-24 months.

(A good way to remember this is that a baby is mostly just using its sense but not doing much else. A baby likes to be swaddled because it FEELS secure. A baby likes to HEAR it's mothers voice and is usually comforted by the sound, etc.)


What is the 2nd of Piaget's 4 stages called?
What is the age range of this stage?


Toddlerhood. Ages 2-7 years old.

(A way to remember this is that a toddler is not "operating" very well at this stage because they do not understand some important basic concepts. They are still learning how to operate so they are


What is the 3rd of Piaget's 4 stages called?
What is the age range of this stage?

Concrete operational.

Childhood. Ages 7-12 years old.

(Think of this stage as the one where the concepts that were misunderstood in the preoperational stage have become solid and "concrete". Now that children have solidified their basic cognitive skills they can "operate" more efficiently.)


What is the 4th of Piaget's 4 stages called?
What is the age range of this stage?

Formal operational.

Adolescents. 12 - Adulthood.

(A good way to remember this is to picture a teenager going to a winter formal.)


What does egocentric mean? (In childhood psychology)

At which of Piaget's stages are individuals egocentric?

To have difficulty understanding things from another person's perspective.

Preoperational. Ages 2-7.

An example of egocentrism is a girl who would like to have a baby doll for her birthday so she assumes her father would also want a baby doll for his birthday.


What is the first step in any type of classroom plan?

To determine the learning objectives.

Knowing what the desired outcomes will be before starting to design a plan is crucial.


What is Conservation?

Conservation is the principle that the amount of something doesn't change even if the appearance is changed. (Assuming that nothing has actually been added or subtracted.)

Not having an understanding of the concept of Conservation is a characteristic of Piaget's preoperational stage.


What is Perspective-taking?

The ability to see things from another person's perspective and feel empathy for their ideas and feelings.

Perspective-taking keeps developing and becomes more advanced as a child ages. Older teenagers and adults usually get to the point of understanding how complex things like economic standing and religion would influence someone's thinking.


What are School-to-work systems?

Are they becoming more or less popular?

These are programs that help prepare students for work experiences rather than only academic skills. (Such as internships.)

Schools and employers are beginning to appreciate and advocate for these systems more and more because everyone benefits.


What method is used to determine if a professional certification test is reliable?

If in two different settings, the same people take a professional certification test twice, and they score in the same performance bracket both times.

The test is reliable because it provides consistent results. Even if they take it at different times--assuming their abilities have not changed--they should get the same outcome from the test.


Just because a test is reliable does not necessarily mean that it is what?


If a test produces the same results each time then it is reliable but if it is not measuring and testing on the skills that it is supposed to be measuring in the first place then it lacks validity.

For example, a test that is supposed to measure your knowledge of how to use power tools may be flawed and rely too much on strength. If it is getting the same results each time it IS reliable but it is NOT valid.


Who's research said that boys are more analytical than girls?

Maccoby and Jacklin.

According to their research, boys are better than girls at analytical tasks such as mathematics, mechanical skills, and other analytical subjects.


Programs in high school that are Career-focused are an excellent resource and should be utilized more.

However what things should be carefully avoided in these programs?

These programs should not be:
Final or binding and should also not be too specific.

They should be broad to give the students a chance to continue to learn and explore and not feel pressured to stick with their initial career focus if their interests change.


Why should high schools have more technical and active learning opportunities?

To prepare students for work in the real world apart from merely academic experience.


What is a person that is androgynous?

Someone who rates themselves high on both masculine and feminine traits such as sensitivity or ambition.


"All learning activity that is undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competence, within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective"

This is the definition of what?

Lifelong learning.


Why is the topic of moral education gaining popularity in the fields of psychology and education?

Due to an increase in crime among adolescents, increased teen pregnancy, and even suicide. These are aspects of what is called a "moral crisis".


It is obvious that the teaching of moral and social values would help reduce problems such as pregnancy, suicide, and violence in youth. Why then is it not implemented more in schools?

Because morals and a schools role in teaching are not universally agreed upon.

It can be controversial to have schools teaching these things because morals are very subjective and differ across cultures and religions and few are considered universal. Adolescents are easily influenced and the role that schools should play in moral education is debated.


Who was among the first psychologists to work on contemporary morals specifically related to the moral ideas of children?

Jean Piaget.

He studied the way children play games in order to learn more about children's beliefs about right and wrong. These can be called universal morals.


What did Piaget believe was the best way to teach children morals?

Piaget believed that schools should encourage cooperative decision making and problem-solving.

Piaget believed that problem solving was the best way to really learn this and he opposed the idea that children should memorize and blindly accept what they are being taught. In this way believed that children would naturally work out rules based on fairness and this would give them a solid foundational understanding of the basic moral laws


According to Piaget, all development emerges from what?



What is it called when teachers must demonstrate performance on specified teaching tasks in actual or simulated situations instead of by taking a written test.

Competency-based teaching.

With this type of evaluation, a teacher may be evaluated while teaching a simulated class and then be asked questions about why they taught the way they did.