Flashcards in Conditioning and behaviorism Deck (39):
What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning is when an automatic response happens because it has been conditioned.
Operant conditioning is deliberate action in response to certain stimuli.
An example of classical conditioning would be a flinch - it is completely unintentional.
An example of operant conditioning might be wearing a helmet on a bike because the last time you got hurt when you didn't wear one. .
Is Pavlov's dogs an example of classical or operant conditioning?
What is the minimum number of factors involved in classical conditioning?
Two of them are most likely already related (such as salivating and dog food) and the third is unrelated initially but over the course of the conditioning becomes a part of the other two as if they were always related.
At what age does separation anxiety typically end by?
By 2 years of age.
What factor brings about classical conditioning the quickest?
Classical conditioning will happen the fastest when emotion is a strong factor. It will condition even more quickly when the emotion is intense or negative.
What is required to make a general conclusion in a study on a group of people?
That the group was selected randomly.
This is called a random sample.
What is Accommodation-Altering?
Who came up with the concept?
It is altering your way of thinking and current world- view because of new information or a situation.
Piaget. It is part of his theory of cognitive development
For example, if a boy believes that all birds are small and then sees an ostrich he will adjust his thinking to believe that only most birds are small. This is called accommodation
What are "schemas" in Piaget's theory?
Schemas are someones mental representations of the world.
What is "equilibrium" in Piaget's theory?
When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i.e., a state of cognitive (i.e., mental) balance.
What is "disequilibrium" in Piaget's theory?
When a person is experiencing cognitive disequilibrium, a person is confused because a new experience is jarring and incomprehensible. (i,e., out of balance.)
A person may choose to adapt to this new experience by assimilating or accommodating.
Who observed that behaviors that get a reward are strengthened and behaviors that are followed by a punishment are weakened?
What is this observation called?
The Law of Effect.
According to Thorndike, dog owners use this to train their dogs.
What is the main principle behind the Law of Effect?
Behavior is a direct result of the consequences that surround that behavior.
What is the meaning of a negative correlation?
It means that increasing one factor reduces the other. When one goes up the other goes down.
IMPORTANT NOTE: This can often get confusing on an exam when they use an example that seems "negative" or "positive" in the typical sense. Remember that is not what this means.
This is the same principle that applies to negative and positive reinforcement. - If you slap a child and they cry that is an example of positive reinforcement because you are adding something (the slap) even though that thing is not pleasant (or what we typically think of as negative).
In almost all examples in psychology try not to think of positive and negative as good and bad but rather adding and subtracting.
There is usually a ___________ between being on time and getting fired. Employees who are always on time are usually less likely to get fired.
Thorndike's law of effect describes and explains what is now known as what?
What adjective did Thorndike use to describe unpleasant events?
What adjective did Thorndike use to describe pleasant events?
Who defined three levels of moral reasoning?
What are those three levels?
What kind of things are important to someone who is in the Conventional Moral Reasoning stage?
Approval from others such as family, peers, and friends.
Kohlberg believed that few adolescents can go beyond the Conventional stage into the Postconventional stage.
What happens Kohlberg's Postconventional stage?
In this stage other people's approval no longer determines morals; in this stage people reason through to their own sense of what makes an action right.
What kind of things is someone concerned with when they are in Kohlberg's Preconventional stage?
Only themselves such as how they can avoid punishment or get a reward.
What was one criticism of Kohlberg's research?
He only used Male research subjects which could have skewed the results toward justice and away from compassion as females are typically more concerned with compassion.
What two aspects of consequences must be present for them to be effective?
They must be immediate and clearly linked to the action.
For example; if you punish a dog a long time after they steal food off of the kitchen table and when you are at the dog park they will probably not make the connection and the consequences will have no effect on the behavior.
Why is it not as critical to have an immediate consequence with older humans?
Because humans can verbally explain the connection.
What is it called when someone learns by observing the behavior of others?
For example; a child learning not to steal because they observed their sibling getting in trouble for it.
What is a "model" in social learning theory?
Anyone who demonstrates or "models" a behavior that is observed by others.
Having good models for others to observe can be a very effective way of teaching.
What is "modeling" in social learning theory?
The imitation of someone else who is responding correctly.
Who focused on social learning and came up with many aspects of social learning theory?
The essence of his theories is that we often learn from others.
What school of psychology was introduced by John B. Watson?
What is this school of psychology about?
Behaviorism is a school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of OBSERVABLE and MEASURABLE responses to environmental stimuli.
Although John B. Watson introduced behaviorism who was the psychologist who took it further than any other psychologist?
B. F. Skinner
Like other behaviorists, he rejected unobservable phenomena of the sort that other forms of psychology, particularly psychoanalysis, had studied, concerning himself only with patterns of responses to rewards and stimuli.
Aside from being measurable, what is another big difference between behaviorism and other types of psychology?
Behaviorism is very easily used and applied to real-world situations and is much less hypothetical than other psychological schools of thought.
What are the two most common goals of behavior modification programs in education?
Improve grades and reduce defiance.
What is the definition of learning?
"A relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience."
Therefore it comes to reason that learning cannot be observed; it must be inferred from observing behavior. In other words, learning is a change in behavior--you observe the behavior to tell if the learning took place.
Many teachers use token economics to help their students behave. How do token economies work in a classroom?
They involve allowing students to earn tokens for academic work and positive classroom behavior. These tokens (play money, coins, etc) can be cashed in for rewards.
When should token economies be used?
Only as a last resort when other attempts to manage behavior have been unsuccessful.
What is Cognitive Learning Theory?
A general approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge.
Stimuli results in brain activity that stores the information where?
Short term memory.
What is a flashbulb memory?
Who coined the term?
Memories that are vivid and long lasting due to a significant event.
(though not necessarily traumatic)
Brown and Kulik coined it in 1977.
Examples of events which have caused flashbulb memories are the deaths of Joh Kennedy and 9/11. People who were alive when these events happened can often not only remember details about the events, but also remember trivial details such as how they heard about it, where they were, what they were doing, etc.
When is information transferred from short to long term memory?
After it has been assimilated.