Circulatory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Circulatory System Deck (65)
1

blood vessels

transports blood from the heart to the body cells and back again

2

arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

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arterioles

arteries that divide into smaller arteries

4

capillaries

smallest of blood vessels; connect arterioles outflow to venous return
considered the functional units of the cardiovascular system
have very thin walls which allow oxygen nutrients and waste to be exchanged between the blood and body tissue

5

aorta

largest artery of the body
supplies all parts of the body with oxygenated blood and has four principle divisions

6

ascending aorta

emerges from the left ventricle posterior to the pulmonary trunk
contains the aortic valve
arches to form the aortic arch
gives off two coronary artery branches that supply the myocardium

7

aortic arch

the most superior portion of the aorta
the ascending aorta turns left for,ing an arch descends and e ds at the level of the interverebral disc between the fourth and fifth thorasic vertebrae

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descending aorta

continues the aortic arch
it extends from the arch into the abdomen where it bifurcates into the common iliac arteries

9

thoracic aorta

section of arch between the arch of the aorta and the diaphram

10

coronary arteries

the first and only branch from the ascending portion of the aorta
provide blood to the myocardium of the heart

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brachiocephalic artery

the first vessel off the aortic arch
bifurcates intomthe right common carotid and right subclavian arteries

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right common carotid artery

supplies blood to the right side of the face and head

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right subclavian artery

supplies blood to the right upper extremity as well as throughout the right side of the thoracic region

14

left common carotid artery

supplies blood to the left side of the face and head

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internal caortid artery

supply blood to portions of the brain

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external carotid arteries

supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck

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left and right subclavian artery

supples blood the left upper extremity as well as throughout the left side of the thoracic region

18

axially arteries

continuation of the subclavian arteries; beginning at the lateral border of the first rib and continuing until armpit region where they become brachial arteries

19

brachial arteries

continuations of the axially arteries along each humerus. they bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hands. common site for measuring blood pressure.

20

radial and ulnar arteries

bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hand. common site for radial pulse

21

vertebral arteries

branch from subclavian arteries. travel superiorly through the forearm magnum where they anastamos to for basilar artery

22

basilar artery

anastamos with two internal carotid arteries to form the circle of willis

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circle of willis

serves as the major blood supplier to the brain

24

common iliac arteries

provide blood to the pelvic region external genitals and lower extremities
formed when the abdominal aorta bifurcates just superior to the pelvic brim

25

popliteal arteries

direct contiunation the femoral arerties as they pass throught the popliteal regions

26

anterior and posterior tibial arteries

travel the entire length of the leg until they terminate in the feet where smaller branches supply the feet with blood

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peroneal arteries

travel down the lateral, posterior portion of the leg until they reach the feet where they terminate

28

heart

pumping mechanism located in the mediastunum

29

mediastinum

mass of tissues and organs that serparate the lungs
contains the heart, large vessels, trachea, esphagus, and thymus glands

30

base

wide posterior surface of the heart formed by the atria

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apex

inferior narrow section the heart formed by they tip of the left ventricle

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endocardium

the inner layer - innermost layer that forms the calves and lines the chambers of the heart

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myocardium

the middle layer - large muscular second layer. forms bulk of the heart wall and is reponsible for its pumping actions

34

epicardium

the external layer - the next layer after the myocardium. it folds back on itself forming a double walled sac knonw as the pericardium or parcardial sac

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pericardium

the membrane that surround and protec the heart - the outermost layer

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parital layer

outer layer fromed by the paracardium

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pericardial space or cavity

space located between the isceral and parietal layers of the pericardium. contains fluid that reduce friction caused by movement of the heart

38

atria

two upper chambers of the heart
receiving chambers of the heart

39

right atrium

forms right border of the receives deoxygenated blood from three veins (superoir vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus

40

left atrium

forms most of the bas of the heart
receives oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins

41

ventricles

two lower chambers of the heart
known as the pumping chambers of the heart

42

right ventricle

froms the most anterior surface of the heart
pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen

43

left ventricle

thickest chamber of the heart
froms the apex
blood passes from the left ventricle through the aortic valve.
pumps blood to all other parts of the body

44

valves of the heart

allow blood to flow in one direction and prevents backward flow in the opposite direction

45

atrioventrcular valve

made up of flaps of the endocardium. named for their location because they are located beween an atrium and a ventricle

46

right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve)

prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium atrium from the right ventricle

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left atrioventricular valve (bicuspid or mitral valve)

pevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium from the left ventricle

48

semilunar valve

made of the aortic and pulmonary valves made from flapsof the endocardium.
crescent shaped

49

right semilunar valve (pulmonary valve)

prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle form the pulmonary arteries

50

left semilunar valve (aortic valve)

prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle from the aorta

51

blood vessels

transports blood from the hear to the body cells and back again

52

arteries

vessels that carry blood away from the heart

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arterioles

arteries that divide into smaller arteries

54

capillaries

connects arterioles to venules
functional units of the cardiovascular system
very thin walls that allow oxygen nutrients and wast to be exchanged between the blood and the tissue

55

sinusoids

blood reservoirs composed of the capillary networks
located within the vital organs of the body (heart, brain, liver, spleen)

56

venules

anastomose with other venules to form larger blood vessels known as veins

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veins

return blood back to the heart

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anastomose

connection of branches

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bifurcate

splitting or dividing of a vessel into branches

60

ascending aorta

the portion of the aort that emerges from the left ventricle
turns left forming an arch

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aortic arch

the most supeior portion of the aorta

62

descending aorta

contiunes the aortic arch
it extends from the arch into the abdomen where it bifurcates into the common iliac arteries

63

pulmonary circulation

right side of heart is the pump
receives dark red, deoxygenated blood returning from systemic circulation
right atrium receives bllod from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus dumps into right ventricle by the tricuspid vavle
right ventricle ejects blood into pulmonary trunk, valve, and arteries
pulmonary trunk carries blood --> lungs --> capillaries (gas exhchange occurs)
blood unloads CO2 and gains 02
oxygenated blood flows from capillaries --> pulmonary veins and returns to left atrium

64

systemic circulation

left side of the heart is the pump
receives bright red, cxygenated blood returing from pulmonary circulation
left atrium receives blood from pulmonary veins
dumps into left ventricle by biscuspid valve
left ventricle ejects bllod into aorta and systemic arteries by aortic valve
aorta carries blood --> organs/tissues of the body --> capillaries (gas exchange occurs)
in systemic capillaries, blood loses O2 and gains CO2
deoxygenated blood flows away from capillaries --> supperior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus --> right atrium for recirculated

65

coronary circulation

nutrients are not able to diffuse quickly enough from blood in the chambers to the heart wall
for this reason the myocardium has its own network of blood vessels