Osteology Flashcards Preview

Biology 101 > Osteology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteology Deck (44)
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depression and openings

sites allowing passage of soft tissue (nerves, blood, vessels, ligaments, tendons) or formation of joints

1

fissure

a narrow cleft-like opening between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass

2

fontanel

a space between skull bones at birth, filled with dense fibrous connective tissue

3

foramen

an opening through which blood vessels nerves or ligaments pass

4

fossa

a depression in or on a bone

5

suclus

a groove that accommodates a soft structure such as blood vessel, nerve or tendon

6

meatus

a tube like passage within a bone

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processes

projections or outgrowth on bone that form joints or attachment points for connective tissue

8

condyle

a large rounded articular prominence

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facet

a smooth flat surface

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head

a rounded articular projection supported on the constricted portion (neck) of a bone

11

crest

a prominent border or ridge

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epicondyle

a prominence above the condyle

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linea

a less prominent ridge than a crest

14

spinous process

a sharp slender process

15

trochanter

a very large projection found only on the femur

16

tubercle

a small rounded process

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tuberosity

a large rounded usually roughened process

18

axial skeleton

consists of bones that lie around the longitudinal axis

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face (skull)

14 bones

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cranuium (skull)

8 bones

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hyoid (axial)

1 bone

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auditory ossicles (axial)

6 bones
-ears (hammer, anvil, stapes)

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verterbral column (axial)

26 bones

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sternum (throax) (axial)

1 bone

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ribs (thorax) (axial)

24 bones

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appendicular skeleton

contains the bones of the upper and lower limbs, plus the bones responsible for connecting the limbs to the axial skeleton

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upper limbs (appendicular)

humerus - 2 bones
ulna - 2 bones
radius - 2 bones
carpals - 16 bones
metacarpals - 10 bones
phalanges - 28 bones

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pelvic girdle (appendicular)

hip, pelvic, and coxal bone - 2 bones

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lower limb (appendicular)

femur - 2 bones
fibula - 2 bones
tibia - 2 bones
patella - 2 bones
tarsals - 14 bones
metatarsals - 10 bones
phalanges - 28 bones

30

intramembraneous ossification process

bones form directly within mesenchym arranged in sheet like layers that resemble membranes

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center of ossification

specific chemical messages cause mesenchymal cells in fibrous connective tissue membranes to cluster and differentiate

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osteoblasts

secretes the organic matrix of bone until they are completely surrounded by it
make bone

33

calcification

the secretion of matrix stops
cells are now called osteocytes

34

formation of trabeculae

the bone matrix develops into trabeculae that fuse with one another
spongy bone

35

endochondral ossification

development of cartilage - the process of the replacement of cartilage by bone

36

perichondrium

develops around the cartilage model

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interstitial growth

growth from within - the cartilage model grows in length by continual cell division

38

appositional growth

growth from the outer surfaces

39

periosteal capillaries

grow into the disintegrating calcified cartilage (periosteal bud)

40

cappilaries

induce growth of a primary ossification center

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developement of the medullary cavity

as the ossification center enlarges toward the end of the bone, osteoclasts break down the newly formed trabeculae

42

spongy bone

consists of lamellae arranged in an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone
the microscopic spaces are filled with red bone marrow
hipbones, ribs, breastbone, backbones, skull, and ends of some long bone are the only site of red bone marrow storage in adults

43

compact bone

forms the external layer of all bones
provides protection and support
made up of a concentric ring structure
blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels penetrate compact bone through perforating canals
adult compact bone tissue is the only connective tissue that has a basic structural unit associated with it