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Flashcards in Organelles of the Cell Deck (29)
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cytoplasm

all cellular contents between plasma and nucleus

1

nucleus

houses the cells DNA

2

plasma membrane

flexible outer layer

3

cytoplasm

contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
has cytosol and organelles that perform different functions in the cell

4

cytoplasmic cytosol

fluid protein, contain water, ions, glucose, amino acids, proteins, lipids, ATP, and waste products
the site of many chemicals reactions required for cells existence

5

cytoplasmic organelles

structures of the cytoplasm that performs specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction

6

endoplasmic reticulum

complex organelle
a network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs and tubules

7

rough and smooth ER

two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum

8

ribosomes

particles composed of proteins and rRNA
composed of two subunits

9

golgi complex

group of flattened membraneous sacs. first step in transport process

10

mitochondria

outer and inner membrane with a small fluid filled space between them

11

cristae

inner membrane contains a series of elongated fluid filled folds (mitochomdria)

12

lysosomes

membranous sacs that contain enzymes

13

peroxisomes

most abundant in cells of the liver

14

proteasomes

tiny barrel shaped structure of four stacked rings of proteins around a central core

15

centrosomes

non-membranous structure composed of two hollow cylinders called centriols

16

cilia

moves fluid over the cells suface

17

flagella

moves an entire cell

18

cytosol

intracellular fluid that surrounds the organelles; 55% of total cell volume
site of many chemical reactions required for a cells existence
75-90% water

19

cytosol function

site of many chemical reactions that provide the building blocks for maintenance of cell structures and cell growth

20

organelles

special structures within the cell that have characteristic shapes
perform functions that aid in cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction
each type have their owm set of enzymes

21

cytoskeleton

maintains shape and general organization of cellular contents

22

centrosomes

used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation

23

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

synthesizes glycoproteins and phosopholipids
smooth ER has various functions depending on what type of cell it is in

24

golgi complex

entry (cis) face accepts proteins from ER
exit (trans) face modifies the molecules further and packages them for transport

25

lysosomes

garbage disposal of the cell
enzymes breakdown protein, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids as well as foreign particles and worn out cells

26

perioxisomes

contains enzymes oxidase and catalase
oxidase is important in the breakdown of many organic molecules
catalase is important in the breakdown of H2O2

27

proteasomes function

degrades unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins by cutting them into small peptides

28

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell
generates ATP through cellular respirations