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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (38)
1

upper respiratory tract

includes the nose, pharynx, and associated structures

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nose

the most superior portion of the upper respiratory tract and is comprised of two portions: external and internal (nasal cavity)

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external portion (Nose)

consists of bone and cartiliage; covered by skin and lined with a mucous membrane

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internal portion (nasal cavity)

large cavity beyond the nasal vestibule in the anterior aspect of the skull that lies inferior to the nasal bone and superior to the mouth; lined with muscle and mucous membrane

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internal portion functions

warm filter and moisten air
sense of smell - olfactory nerve receptors that lie within the nasal cavity
modify speech - nasal cavity creates two resonating chambers that modify speech and sound

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pharynx

(throat) funnel shaped tube that starts at the internal nares and extends to the leve of the cricoids cartilage

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cricoids cartilage

the most inferior carilage of the larynx

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nasopharynx

the most superior portion of the pharynx
lies posterior to the nasal cavity and extends to the soft palate
a passagway for air only from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx

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oropharynx

most intermediate portion of the pharynx
extends from the soft palate to the level of they hyoid bone
allows air and food to pass from the mouth to the laryngopharynx

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laryngopharynx

inferior portion of the pharynx
extends from the level of the hyoid bone to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage
opens into the esophogus posteriorly and the larynx anteriorly
serves as a passageway fro both food and air

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lower respiratory tract

the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs

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larynx

connects to the laryngopharynx to the trachea and extends from c-4 to c-6
houses the vocal chords and is often called the voice box
the opening is covered by the epiglottis during the act of swallowing to prevent aspiration of food particles into the lungs

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trachea

located anterior to the esohogua and extends from the larynx to the level of the fifth throacic vertebra
a pipe like passageway for air only to the lungs
it bifurcates at the level of the fifth veterbra into the right and left primary bronchi

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carina

fromed by a posterior and somewhat inferior projection of the last trachel cartilage

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primary bronchi

the right and left enter the hilum of each corrpsonding lung

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hilum

the opening on the medial surface of the lungs where all tubes and vessels enter and exit the lungs

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primary right bronchi

more vertical, shorter, and wider than the left primary bronchus; because of this an aspirated object is more likely to enter the right lung than the left
divide into three secondary bronchi, one for each lobe of the right lung

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secondary bronchi

after the primary bronchi enter the lungs they branch into

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left primary bronchi

divides into two secondary bronchi, because there are only two lobes in the left lung

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tertiary bronchi

division of secondary bronchi branch

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bronchioles

division of tertiary bronchi

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alveolar ducts

bronchioles finally subdivide
there are numerous alveoli and sacs

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alveoli

air sacs in the lungs that aid in air distribution and gas exchange. Functional units of the lungs

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alveolar sacs

two or more alveoli that shar a common duct or opening

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lungs

two cone shaped organs
lie within the thoracic cavity (chest)

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throacic cavity

formed by the sternum, ribs, and the thoracic spine
surrounds and protects the heart and lungs and maintains internal pressure to prevent hyperinflation of the lungs

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mediastinum

area located between the lungs
heart, greater vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus gland

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pleural membrane

composed of two serous membranes and the cavity between them

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serous membrane

lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior and produces a clear watery subsance (serum) that moistens its surface

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parietal pleura

outer layer of the pleural membrane; lines the wall of the throacic cavity

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visceral (pulmonary) pleura

second layer of the pleural membrane; covers the lungs themselves

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pleural cavity

space between the parietal and visceral pleura that is filled with a lubricating fluid

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fissures

divide the lung into lobes

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right lobe

divided into three: inferior, middle, and inferior

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left lobe

divided into two: superior and inferior

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apex

most superior portion of each lung

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base

inferior portion of each lung

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costophrenic angles

triangular space between the wall of the throacic cavity and the lower margin of the diaphragm which is radiographically important