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Flashcards in Components of the Cell Deck (27)
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cannot be split into a simpler substance

Element

1

Makes up each element
Smallest unit of matter

Atom

2

Atom or molecule with positive or negative charge

Ion

3

2 or more atoms sharing electrons

Molecule

4

contains atoms of two or more different elements

compound

5

cytoplasm
nucleus
plasma membrane

cell

6

contains both carbon and hydrogen
usually called nonelecrtolytes

organic compound

7

contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
water soluble molecules
glucose, table sugar and plant starch

carbohydrates (organic substance)

8

contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
insoluble in water soluble in organic solvents
fatty acids are the simplest
phospholipids and steroids

lipids (organic substances)

9

contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
building blocks are amino acids
shapes are complex
keratin, fibrin, a myglobin

proteins (organic substance)

10

contains atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
building blocks are nucleotides

nucleic acids (organic substance)

11

two major types of nucleic acids

RNA and DNA (organic substance)

12

energy currency of living systems
powers cellular activities that require energy called Endergonic Reactions

ATP

13

provide energy
provide cell structure

carbohydrates

14

provide energy
provide cell structure
provide insulation beneath the skin

lipids

15

structural components in cell membranes

phosophlipids

16

provide energy to drive muscle contraction
provide cell structure for body tissue
provide enzymes which speed up biochemical reactions (enzymes)

proteins

17

store information for the synthesis of proteins
control cell activities

nucleic acids

18

generally dissolves or react with water to release ions
usually called electrolytes

inorganic substance

19

most abundant compound in living material
responsible for two/thirds of the weight of an adult human
major component of blood and other body fluid

water H2O (inorganic substance)

20

medium in which most biochemical reactions occur
transports various chemical substances
regulates body temperature

water (H20)

21

enters the internal environment through the respiratory organs
transported throughout the body by blood
necessary for cell survival and ultimately for survival of the organism

oxygen (O2) (inorganic compounds)

22

used to release emergy from glucose molecules

oxygen (O2)

23

a simple carbon containing inorganic compound
produced by a waste product

carbon dioxide (CO2)

24

reacts with water to form carbonic acid

carbon dioxide (CO2)

25

abundant in body fluids
source of many necessary ions

inorganic salts

26

play important roles in metabolic process
maintain proper water concentration and ph balance in body fluids
needed for: blood clotting, bone development, energy to transfer within cells, muscle and nerve function

inorganic salts