Flashcards in CIS Clusterfuck Deck (36):
The primary immmune response results in immunological memory refers to as
What happens during subsequent exposure?
The response is stronger and faster than previous exposures
What is herd immunity?
A reduction in transmission of diseases because a percentage of the population is immunized against the pathogen
Why aren’t 100% of people vaccinated?
Pregnant women can’t get live vaccines; the elderly and children and those who are otherwise immunosuppressed would have detrimental effects
What are the 4 reasons for passive immunization?
1. Prevent disease after a known exposure
2. Reduce symptoms of ongoing disease
3. Protect immunosuppressed patients
4. Block and sequester bacterial toxins
What is the most important part of active immunization?
Activation of T cells so that you are sure you get memory
What is combined active-passive immunization?
Getting immediate treatment through artificial passive through IVIg AND giving long term protection through administration of the vaccine
Why can’t we immediately vaccinate children?
They may not have immune maturity; children don’t have an immune response to Ag presented too early
What is the timeline of Ab in a fetus to birth?
Maternal IgG is passed on to the fetus —> IgM is first synthesized and baby receives maternal IgA from breast milk —> then transitions into “adulthood” IgG and IgA produced
What are live vaccines?
Live versions of the pathogen are given (live viruses from another species OR live, attenuated viruses)
What are inactivated vaccines?
Portions of pathogens or inactivated pathogens (killed or inactivated viruses, subunit or component, toxoid, conjugate)
What is the role of adjuvants being added to vaccinations?
Titrate out exposure (oil prolongs dispersal), invokes mild inflammation to attract phagocytes, used to increase overall effectiveness
Conjugate vaccines function as what?
Haptens, they form complexes
What is the absence of a normal immune response?
What is the larger fragment in component called? Smaller?
What is the function of the B fragment?
This is the active complement fragment
What is the a fragment of complement?
This is the anaphylatoxin portion and it diffuses from the site and plays a role in initiating localized inflammatory response
What is the classical complement complex?
What is the alternative complement complex?
What are the three complement activation pathways?
Lectin, alternative, classical
How is the classical complement pathway activated?
Antibody binding to antigen initiates the path
What is the alternative complement pathway activated by?
The spontaneous proteolysis of C3–> C3b + C3a
What is the purpose of the activation of alternate complement pathway?
There is a vigilant immune system primed to deal with pathogens
What activates the lectin pathway?
Serum mannose binding protein to a bacteria initiating the cascade
How many antibodies need to bind to form the C1 component?
1 IgM or 2 IgG
What does C1 bind to start complement activation?
C1 binds to the Fc portion of the antibody
What is C1 made of?
It is made of the C1q hexamer, 2 C1r and 2 C1s
Binding of multiple ________ domains of C1 causes a conformational change which yields C1qrs complex?
What cleaves C4?
What happens after C4 gets cleaved?
C4b comes down and attaches to cell membrane near where the antibody is bound
After C4b attaches to the membrane, what is the next step in the classical pathway?
C2 binds to C4b —> C1qrs cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b
After C2a and C2b are created which one associates with C4 and what C4 does it attach to?
They become active and connect to C4a; C3 convertase (C4b2a)
What is responsible for distinction between self and non-self?
What is a C3 convertase made of?
C4b2a, then C3b comes and connects to the complex C4b2a and becomes C4b2a3b
What is C4b2a3b complex called?