Flashcards in Citrate Cycle/ETC Deck (18)
How many ATP, NADH, FADH, CO2 are produces in the Citrate Cycle?
1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH, 2 CO2.
What molecules are sources for making AcetylCoA?
Amino Acids, Glucose, Ketones, Fatty Acids.
What are the irreversible enzyme steps in the CC? What are their inhibitors?
1. Citrate Synthase: None
2. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: ATP, NADH
3. a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: ATP/GTP, NADH
What is the purpose of the Electron Transport Chain?
To transport electrons from donated NADH or FADH2 to reduce O2 to H2O and establish a proton gradient.
What is the purpose of oxidative phosphoryltion?
To generate ATP by ATP synthase using the proton gradient formed by ETC.
Complex 1 contains what parts? Accepts electrons from what?
Has an NADH dehydrogenase and proton pump. Accepts electrons from NADH.
Complex 2 contains what parts? Accepts electrons from what?
Succinate Dehydrogenase. Accepts electrons from FADH2.
what accepts electrons from complex 1 and 2? Where does it pass it on? Special characteristics?
CoQ. Passes it to Complex 3. Lipid soluble.
What accepts electrons from complex 3? Passes it where? What are its special characteristics?
CytC. Passes it to Complex 4. Contains a heme group and requires iron.
What co-factor does Complex 3 contain? What does it also do in addition to passing on electrons?
It has a heme group and pumps protons.
What co-factors does COmplex 4 contain? What does this complex do?
Contains iron and copper. Reduces O2 to H2O and pumps protons.
Where does the electron transport chain occur? Where does the proton gradient build?
Occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Protons build up in the intermembrane space between the outer and inner membrane.
how many H+ are required for the ATP synthase to create 1 ATP?
4H+= 1 APT
What does Adenine Nucleotide Translocase (ANT) do?
Transports ATP across Inner Mitochondrial membrane to intermembrane space. Transports ADP from the Intermembrane space into the matrix.
What does the Voltage-dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) do?
Transports anions, including ATP, across outer mito membrane from intermembrane space. Transports ADP from cytoplasm into intermembrane space.
Describe the Malate-Aspartate Shuttle.
1. NADH -->NAD+ from oxaloacetate to malate
2. Malate shuttle into mitrochondrial matrix
3. NAD+-->NADH from Malate to Oxaloacetate
4. Oxaloacetate to Aspartate--->cytosol
5. Aspartate to oxaloacetate.
Describe the Glycerol 3-Phosphate Shuttle.
1. NADH-->NAD+ from glycerol-3P synthesis
2.FAD-->FADH2 on outside of inner membrane by re-oxidation of G-3P
3. G-3P Dehydrogenase transports FADH2 e- to CoQ